American History


ManyAmericans participated in the World War II. Their main objective wasto ensure equality among different groups (Barnes &amp Bowles,2014). Therefore, this essay gives a critical view of the effects ofSupreme Court rulings that were fought for by equality movements ofthe 1960s and 1970s. Additionally, it will explain variouscontributions of such laws to spreading opportunity to a specificgroup of Americans.

Thelaws Civil rights act of 1964 and equal pay act of 1963. The civilright act of 1964 was the law that advocated for equal protection(Barnes &amp Bowles, 2014). The law led to the end of racialseparation in all public facilities such as schools, hospitals andworkplace. The law further outlawed any discrimination that was onthe ground of nationality, color, and sex. The law gave all Americansright to vote. The laws also provided equal opportunity to allpublic facilities such as hotels, restaurants, and shops. In thateffect employment opportunity became equal for all because there wason workplace racial discrimination. Police brutality reduced, and allcitizens were treated equally. Furthermore, the constitution cameinto place. The constitution protected the Americans against the formof oppression and the disadvantaged groups who were deprived of anyrights(Chambers, 2008).

Equalpay act of 1963, the law banned all the differences that occurred onsalaries based on sex. Women were considered a human being. Theyneeded equal pay like male counterparts. Therefore, the law gave thewomen right to vote. The rights of women were equally protected,where they were able to receive same wages as men. The jobs were madeaccessible by women. Additionally, marital rape ended, discriminationagainst pregnant women ended and women became entitled to equal pay,education, and jobs. Finally, the prohibition against sex ended, andwomen started forming their parties(Wilkins, 2012).


Barnes,L. &amp Bowles, M. (2014). The American story: Perspectives andEncounters from 1877. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

ChambersJr, H. L. (2008). Civil Rights Act of 1964. Encyclopediaof the Supreme Court of the United States,1,326.

Wilkins,E. R. (2012). Equal Pay Act of 1963. TheEncyclopedia of Human Resource Management: Short Entries,191-196.

American history




American&nbspdomestic&nbsppolicies,socioeconomic conditions and culture, and early 20th century Americaninvolvement/s&nbspoverseas

Thereis always a strong correlation between domestic policies and foreignpolicies in the United States as well as other countries around theworld. This is because foreign policies are aimed at furthering thenation’s interests beyond its borders. In the early 20thcentury, the United States abandoned the isolationism foreignpolicies and became more involved overseas. This was mainly aimed atincreased the American influence in the increasingly integrated worldand securing American interests outside the borders. American foreignpolicies are also aimed at increasing the influence of Americansocial, economic, political and cultural values in other parts of theworld. The main characteristics of the American foreign policies inthe early 20thcentury have been an attempt to integrate the global community intoone large community. This involves creating a homogenous societythrough social, cultural, economic and political activities thatlinks different societies around the world. For example, the genesisof baseball in Meiji Japan has been linked to the early encountersbetween the American society and Japanese society (Shimizu, 2004).Therefore, there is a huge connection between what is happening inAmerica and its involvement in the overseas.

Internationalismhas been one of the most important features of the American society.The American society accommodates individuals from all societiesaround the world. In the early 20thcentury, there were numerous students from around the world whostudies in the United States. Although it was not entirely a domesticpolicy, the American govern adopted a policy to increase the numberof immigrant students in the American universities through varioussponsorship programs. A similar foreign policy was adopted where agroup of eight students from the United States were sent to study inFrance under the mentorship of American professors. This was part ofwhat was referred to as the Delaware Foreign Study Plan. By the endof the third decade of 20thcentury, together with the Smith College program, the program hadover twelve hundred undergraduate student studying in the France.However, the emergence of the Second World War in Europe had hugeimpacts on the programs. This programs emphasizes the correlationbetween domestic approaches and international relations in the early20thcentury America. After the First World War, there was an attempt bythe United States promoted American culture and values in Europe andother parts of the world. By promoting American social, economic,cultural and political values overseas, the American policies wouldenable American foreign policies to transcend across the borders(Walton, 2005).

Anotherintersection between domestic policies and Americans involvementoutside its borders is the racial relations. In the early 20ttboththe minority races and women were treated discriminatively in theUnited States. According to (Colby, 2006), the impacts of racialpractices in the United States were very evident in its involvementin the international affairs and expansion of its influence in theglobe. For example, the racial relations in the United States had aninfluence in the United States foreign policy in Cuba. In the early20thcentury, the most important racial relations related to the JimCrowns racial discrimination and segregation, which was also evidentin the labor system introduced by Americans in Cuba. Anotherimportant aspect that emerged in the United States foreign policiesand domestic policies was the role of women in governance. The 20thcentury saw an increased role of women in the American social,economic and political landscape. Additionally, the governmentadopted a policy that would increase the role of women especiallyforeign officer’s wives in American engagements and activitiesabroad (Wood, 2013).


Colby,J. M. (2006). Banana growing and Negro management, Race, labor andJim Crown colonization in Guatemala, 1884-1930. DiplomaticHistory,30(4) p 595-621.

Shimizu,S. (2004). For love of the game. Baseball in early US Japaneseencounters and rises of a transnational sporting fraternity.DiplomaticHistory,28(5), p 637-662.

Walton,W. (2005). Internationalism and the Junior Year Abroad: AmericanStudents in France in the 1920s and 1930s. DiplomaticHistory,29(2), p 255-280.

Wood,M. (2005). Diplomatic wives, the politics of domesticity and thesocial game in the US Foreign Service, 1905-1941. Journalof women’s History,17(2), p 142-165.