Artificial Intelligence Abstract

ArtificialIntelligence

Abstract

Thepurpose of this research is to discuss the concept of artificialintelligence and how the technology is used to improve human life.The paper argues that artificial intelligence uses logic, planningalgorithm and statistical software to enhance knowledgerepresentation, planning, language processing, reasoning and problemsolving. AI benefits users because it is faster to use and incursfewer costs while making fewer mistakes. It replaces humans who areusually prone to errors and incur more costs. Therefore, it providesgreat returns and productivity opportunities for human users.

Thepurpose of this research is to describe the project of artificialintelligence. It includes various parts including the technicalbackground which introduces the meaning and purpose of artificialintelligence literature review on the project subject descriptionof solution to the project and the benefits of the project solution.

Artificialintelligence refers to the intelligence of machines, computers orsoftware. People create computers and software that have thecapability of exhibiting intelligent behaviour like humans. The fieldof artificial intelligence enables human beings to developintelligent agents or machines in order to perform duties that humanbeings are not able to perform. Artificial intelligence is alsodeveloped and controlled by humans. Some people argue that artificialintelligence may soon wipe out human beings. However, according toArthur (2015) such arguments are overblown because the tool can becontrolled by humans. Artificial Intelligence technology has evolvedsince the development of the computer to the development of modernrobots. Even the mobile phones that people use are a result ofartificial intelligence. AI has matured and established itself as acognitive tool used to understand issues and develop knowledge neededby human beings for normal functioning and carrying out of essentialactivities in life. AI technology today consists of robotic bodieswhich ensure that they interact with the world through motors andsensors. It enhances the creation of high effective workingenvironment by sensing things and performing the activities thathumans are not able to perform directly with their naturalintelligence. It also solves specific problems that disturb people intheir normal activities. AI technology is used for deduction, problemsolving, knowledge creation, reasoning, learning, planning,perception, and manipulation and movement of objects.

BackgroundReview

Theterm artificial intelligence was first developed by John McCarthy in1955, defining it as the engineering and science of developingintelligent machines. In 1956, the field of artificial intelligencewas developed at a conference held in Dartmouth College. The foundersof the technology include John McCarthy, Herbert Simon, Allen Newell,Marvin Minsky, Arthur Samuel and their students who wrote computerprograms that were astonishing to ordinary people (Johnston, 2008).The computers were used to solve algebra, speak English and provelogical theorems. Artificial intelligence led to heavy research anddevelopment of laboratories across the world that was used to developcomputer programmes and software to help human beings to solveproblems and perform specific tasks. In 1980s, Japanese fifthgeneration computer was developed, leading ton intensified researchon artificial intelligence throughout the world. The computationalpower of the computer improved in 1990s and artificial intelligenceemphasized solutions to sub-problems. Deep Blue was developed in1990s and became the first computer system to play chess and defeatworld Chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997. Through the years,several artificial intelligence technologies have been developed.Apple’s Maps is capable of determining where one works or where hecalls home. Windows Cortana has also been developed to run hugedatabase that cannot be remembered with natural human memory.

TechnicalSolution to the Project

Varioustools are used to solve the problems of artificial intelligence. Oneof them is search and optimization. This tool can be used to searchintelligently for possible solutions (Tecuci, 2012). The reasoningthat humans perform using their minds can be reduced to justsearching in a computer search and optimizing engine. For example,Google us a search engine that can be used to search for informationon the internet in order to get information needed to answer specificquestions, understand a concept or solve a specific problem.

Fig1: Google’s Search Engine

Thefigure above shows the search engine developed by Google for peopleto search for information on the internet. The rectangular space isused to type the specific information that one wishes to know about.The user then clicks on “Google Search” below the typed text tolead him or her to the internet where information concerning thetyped issue is obtained.

Logicalproof can be obtained by searching through premises in order to comeup with a conclusion using an inference rule (Serenko and Dohan,2011). Using concepts from economics and probability, artificialintelligence obtains uncertain and incomplete information usingenormous computational resources. Sensorimotor skills also providehigh reasoning (Wason and Shapiro, 1966). Statistical artificialintelligence can also be used to imitate probability of humans inorder to guess and obtain information and inference to provide asolution or conclusion about specific premises.

Planningalgorithms also search for information and solutions to specificproblems by using goals and sub-goals represented by trees. Thisprocess finds a path to a specific goal using a process known asmeans-ends analysis (Johnston, 2008). By using planning algorithmtools, artificial intelligence technology sets goals and achievesthem by finding ways of visualizing the future. Artificialintelligence technologies such as computers and software have arepresentation of the state of the world and can make predictionsabout changing situations in the surrounding. This can be achieved byusing hierarchical control system represented by a tree diagram shownbelow.

Fig2: AI planning control system (Johnston, 2008)

Fromthe figure above, the artificial intelligence technology starts atthe top level where tasks and goals are set and visualized determinethe direction of controlled system. Sensors and actuators are used tosend and receive actions and sensations to and from the controlledprocess or the environment where the planning occurs.

Thelogic tool is also used for problem solving and knowledgerepresentation in the artificial intelligence technology. Staplanalgorithm can be used by the technology to enhance planning while theinductive logic programming can be used in learning process.Automated planning through the Statplan systems involves conversionof planning problem into a satisfiability problem usingsatisfiability solution methods. For instance, planning may startwith the development of a specific goal and horizon. A formula isthen generated if the plan falls within the given horizon length.

Artificialintelligence can also use knowledge engineering to representknowledge needed by human beings to understand specific issues andsolve certain problems. Machines such as computers need to representrelations, properties and objects using specific software such asApple or Google Maps, Spreadsheet from Microsoft and SPSS. Thisinformation enhances the comparison between events, states, time andsituations. Artificial intelligence uses these software to study whatis known in a more comprehensive manner and represent knowledge in aclearer and more understandable manner. Ontology entails thedescription of relations, properties and types so that the knowledgerepresentation resembles the object being represented in the realworld so that it is understood more clearly.

Fig3: Ontology of AI

Thefigure shows how knowledge is represented using interrelations ofconcepts. It shows the relation between concepts so that anindividual can understand knowledge related to the concepts. Theitems in the oval figures represent various computations. Artificialintelligence technology establishes the relationship between each ofthese items through ontology in order to reduce complexities andorganize information in a more understandable and clearer manner.

Computerscan also speak certain languages such as English if they arecommanded to do so using specific software. Natural languageprocessing enables artificial intelligence machines to read andunderstand languages spoken by human beings (Serenko and Dohan,2011). Natural language user interfaces are developed by the languageprocessing system. These interfaces interpret written or newswiretexts. One of the methods of interpreting human language is thesemantic indexing.

Fig4: Parse Tree

TheParse Tree above represents how language is interpreted using thesemantic indexing. If the processing speed of the machine increasesand the cost of storing data reduces, the indexing of input becomesmore efficient.

Discussionof the Solution

Theuse of artificial intelligence has a great significance to users. Itreplaces most of the activities used by humans at a lower cost.Therefore, employers will not incur a lot of labour costs in theirtask performance (Froese and Ziemke, 2009). They can get moreproductivity with less labour costs. For instance, the use ofcomputer for knowledge representation enables business people toobtain and analyse information on marketing and employment withoutusing a lot of salespeople and marketing researchers.

Artificialintelligence technology also makes fewer errors than humans (Serenkoand Dohan, 2011). For example, logic and planning algorithms enablehumans to make calculations and predictions of variables withoutusing human brain that is usually prone to mistakes and errors. Theonly time when the technology becomes difficult is the set up, butwhen it has been set up it is easy to maintain. Humans thereforebenefit in various activities. AI technology also works longer thanhumans, leading to higher productivity for its users. It takes a lotof time and money to initiate or develop the artificial intelligencetechnology. However, the benefits are long lasting.

N

Logic

Planning Algorithm

Statistical Software

etworkDiagram

Language Processing

Ontology

Conclusion

Artificialintelligence has been seen as an important technology in the modernera. It started in 1960s and has undergone significant changes sincethen. It can be used for planning, knowledge representation,reasoning, problem solving and natural language processing. Thesebenefits can be achieved using tools such as logic, search engines,planning algorithm and statistical software. The major problem withthe technology is that it may take long time and a lot of money toimplement, but once it is implemented it enables its users to solvevarious problems. It works faster, makes fewer errors, incurs fewercosts and increases productivity for users. It replaces human effortsthat are usually slow and takes time to bear fruit.

Referenceslist

Froese,T. and Ziemke, T. (2009). Enactive artificial intelligence:Investigating the systemic organization of life and mind. ArtificialIntelligence,173, 466–500.

Johnston,J. (2008). TheAllure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the NewAI. Massachusetts: MIT Press

Serenko,A., and Dohan, M. (2011). Comparing the expert survey and citationimpact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of ArtificialIntelligence. Journalof Informetrics,5 (4), 629–649.

Tecuci,G. (2012). Artificial Intelligence. WileyInterdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics,4 (2), 168–180

Wason,P.C., and Shapiro, D. (1966). “Reasoning”. In Foss, B.M. Newhorizons in psychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.