Biologyis the science of life or an area of study concerned with the enquiryabout life and its structure. Scientists use the biologicalapplication to give different explanations to phenomena. Thedifferent processes taking place in animals, humans and plants have abiological background. The emergence of new technology to conductresearch like high-resolution microscopes have been instrumental inassisting scientist study even the smallest units of life. There areseveral fields of interest that this paper will look into in whichscientists borrow a lot from biology.
1.DNA in forensic science
DNAprofiling in forensic science has been very instrumental in gatheringevidence for victim identification during a major crisis likeaccidents or legal purposes din case of crime. The biologicalapplication behind this lies in the scientific description andbiological structure of the DNA. Every person has a unique DNAsequence. The cells in the body are diploid in nature, and they bearsimilar DNA structure (Starr et al., 2015). Forensic science involvescollecting evidence by matching DNA combinations to variousindividuals.
Theforensic scientists collect cells from urine, feces, semen, saliva,hair among others. The biological structure of the DNA makes itpossible to attribute different parts of the body to differentpersons and, therefore, solve the mysteries in crime or victimidentification. For example during fires, some people may burn beyondrecognition, and they can only be identified through DNA testing ofvarious cells (Starr et al., 2015). In crime scenes, people leavebehind somebody cells, and their DNA identification can help tonarrow down to the culprits.
2.Population evolution and microbial life
Asscientists put it, all organisms had a common ancestor but throughmutations, they adapted differently to different environments andwhat we have today is a collection of organisms with differentphysical and genetical characteristics. A population is a group oforganisms that can interbreed and give rise to other their type(Starr et al., 2015). For example, human beings can give rise to ayoung one since they fall in the same species. Evolution takes placefor a long period usually millions of years. Evolution does nothappen in an individual but a population. Mutations and naturalselection are the major causes of evolutions.
Biologistspresent microbes as very tiny organisms that are everywhere in theenvironment. For example, they present them as too small such thattheir population on one’s hand is more than the total word humanbeings population. They find a habitat in water and air and even inour bodies. They are the oldest forms of life dating back to billionsof years ago. Human beings cannot survive without them since theyperform various functions in the body. For example, human beingscannot survive without the micro-organisms that help in digestion inthe digestive tract. However, without the existence of otherorganisms, the microbes would just be fine. The study of microbiallife helps scientists to explain the different processes taking placein the ecology since there is an intense relationship between humanbeings and microbes.
3.Biology diversity evolution
Biologicaldiversity refers to the combination of all the components in theenvironment that work together through mutual interactions. Theenvironment harbors different organisms each adapted in its uniqueway to survive in the environment. Biodiversity comes withindispensable benefits to the environment as the production ofoxygen, the production of nutrients, recycling of materials in theenvironment and air cleansing (Starr et al., 2015). It is imperativeto take care of the natural biodiversity for the sustainability ofthe future generations. The benefits attached to the existence ofdifferent organisms in the environment are proof that the environmentwould not support life without them. Due to the various destructiveactivities of human beings in the environment, most of thebiodiversity continues to evolve to fit into the changingenvironment.
Theevolution of biodiversity dates back to around 3.5 billion years.After a few hundred million years after the formation of the earth,the existences of biodiversity started. The fossil records are agood explanation of how the component of biodiversity continues tochange. For example, today we no longer have dinosaurs since theyhave become extinct (Starr et al., 2015). The evolution of man isalso a prime example whereby the modern man has a different statureand brain capacity that nth Neanderthal man. Another example thatdepicts the evolution of diversity is the gradual emergence ofarthropods. According to scientific reports, more than 90% ofarthropods have not been classified since they do not fall in any ofthe conventional classes developed by taxonomists.
4.Plant and animal evolution.
Thereare many theories that explain the evolution of plants and animals. Some of these theories, for example, the Lamarck theory received alot of criticism because most scientists could not borrow his ideathat acquired characteristics could be inherited. Darwin came up withthe theory of natural selection and action and outlined that animalsand plants with desirable characteristics tend to propagate to thenext generation while the rest die. The evolution of plants andanimals occurs to fit in changing environments. The outstandingexample is the species of animals and plants found in New Zealand.About 85 million years ago, the continent drifted away from the restof the world. The special conditions forced the animals to developunique characteristics like flightless birds and walking bats (Starret al., 2015).Some animals also became extinct like mammoths thatresembled elephants because they could not cope with the changingconditions. Plants also evolved for over time from the simple algalmats ad bryophytes to the current gymnosperms ad angiosperms that wehave today.
Inbiology, population growth is the increase of individuals in a group.The population increase happens over a given period. There arevarious factors that influence population growth like the presence ofa favorable environment for a particular species. For example, theworld population in 1800 was only 1 billion. As at 2012, thepopulation hit seven billion. However, population growth seems to beone-sided in the ecosystem whereby as human beings increase, thenumber of plants and animals continue to decrease. For example, thenumber of African elephants has reduced by more than half in the last50 years (Starr et al., 2015).Some human factors like poaching andoccupying the natural habitats reduce the number of some animals inthe environment. Some natural factors in the environment mayencourage population growth. For example, the white-tailed deer inHawaii is on the increase due to a reduction of predators. Populationgrowth comes with the competition of the available resources sincethe natural land does not increase.
6.Biomes and ecosystems.
Inbiology, biomes refer to large areas on earth that have similarplants and animals and other organisms (Starr et al., 2015). Examplesinclude temperate rain forest, tropical rain forests, tundra, andgrasslands. An ecosystem is much smaller than a biome. It refers to asmall section in an environment and the interactions that occurbetween the living and non-living things (Starr et al., 2015). In anecosystem, each organism takes a niche and has a position and a roleto play in the ecosystem. For example, a tree gives oxygen for use bythe animals. The application of biology helps in the protection ofbiomes and ecosystem by identifying the instances that may lead toimbalance. For example, pollution may affect the niche of onecomponent leading t an imbalance. The study of different organismshelps to identify the functions of different organisms and thepossible consequences of their reduction.
Starr,C., Taggart, R., Evers, C., & Starr, L. (2015). Biology:The Unity and Diversity of Life.Cengage Learning: New York.