Biology short questions


Biologyshort questions


Theyare three main animal models but the best model to use for researchon the genetics of aging is homologous. This model uses organismssuch as mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. The genes and biologicalmechanism of this organisms are similar to those of human beings.This organism also experience many similar physiological changes thatis body change, with aging. Hence, despite the differences in theirappearance these animals are very useful in the study and research ofhuman aging and human physiology.


  1. The GFP has several advantages over past makers like the fluorescently labeled antibodies. The GPF has about 238 amino acids which are smaller compared to other proteins. Another advantage was that it can be excited blue light (UV). Lastly, it was very active and did not require a cofactor or other minor molecules to fluoresce.

  2. Velocity centrifugation is used at the beginning of most fractional procedures. The separation is only possible because of the different sedimentation rates of numerous cellular components.

  3. A group of enzymes that cut a specific point in the DNA is known as restriction enzymes. These enzymes identify a unique sequence of nucleotides in the DNA strand and cuts it at this point. In bacteria, this enzymes are used to defend cells. Restriction enzymes are also very useful in molecular biology. They are used to perform processes as recombinant DNA and genetic engineering to manipulate DNA.

  4. Both resolution and magnification are an important concepts of optics. Resolution is termed as the ability to differentiate two objects using their specific details. Images with more details are said to have a high resolution. Magnification is the enlargement of an object using optic instruments like a microscope. Magnification is not only intended to make an object look bigger than its actual size but also makes a far object appear close than it really is.

  5. The change in wavelength is due to the energy loss between the times a photon is absorbed and when it is emitted. The energy loss is caused by the non-radioactive decay of the lowest vibrational energy level. The energy loss is also due to the higher vibrational level left by the emission of fluorophore


  1. On the surface of the fused chimpanzee and rat cell the green fluorescent and red fluorescent molecules would be localized in separate regions. This localization will be in correspondence to the membrane of the cell from which they originated.

  2. The red and green fluorescence would have begun to diffuse together on the surface of the fused cell.

  3. If the temperature is increased the rate of mixing of the two chimpanzee and rat protein would be higher.


  1. The right side out vesicle (ROVs) had green dotted spots indicating the presence of annexin V. The annexin did not cover the whole cell as it did in the inside-out vesicles. This data can be used to conclude that inside-out vesicles (IOVs) had greater amounts of annexin V compared to the right-side –out vesicle (ROVs).

  2. The structure of band 3 has both the right side vesicle and the inside out vessel. This information is seen from the results gotten from the experiment.