Careof the Older Adult
Careof the Older Adult
Overtime, there has been a growing/increasing demand for older adult careservices this is due to the fact that, the number of older adults isamong the fastest growing age group. For example, in the UnitedStates, the recent census conducted revealed that, older adults arelikely to develop chronic illness in addition to the relateddisabilities. This in turn has made the health of older adults animportant aspect within the health sector not only in the UnitedStates, but also in other parts of the globe. The main goal behindthe care or older adults is to improve their health, functions andquality of their lives. This paper will look into a set of questionsregarding the issue of adult care giving.
Health Promotion/Maintenance and Living Environments for Older Adults
1. One of the major concerns with care for older adults is their livingenvironment. Be it at home, or in special homes, such as nursing homeresidents, the environment is an essential part of the care of olderadults. Individualized care is a right for the residents of a nursinghome resident. Nursing staff can individualize the daily routinethrough understanding of each resident`s condition, needs, abilities,goals, routines as each of them has unique requirements, henceneeding a unique plan for his/care. The daily routine can in turn beindividualized by the nursing staff through resident assessment.
2. Patients with dementia have different living options which aregreatly determined by the degree or the extent of their condition.Patients who are labeled as mild-to moderate dementia have livingoptions such as
-Decidingon when is the best time to move from home care to specified caregiving facility
-Usinghome respite care, as well use of custodial, or skilled care givingoptions
-Usingindependent or AssistedLiving options
-Useof nursing homes or
3. The problem of urinary frequency is the need for a patient tourinate many times either during or night (nocturia). Theenvironmental change that would be favorable for patients with theproblem is access to the toilet with ease as well as ease ofcleaning. The environment can also be improved through the provisionof safe environment such as non-slip floor, and adequate lighting.
4. Elder abuse is the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well asexploitation, neglect. The main perpetrators in cases of elder abuseare the children, spouses and family members. In addition, otherperpetrators entail staff at nursing homes.
5. Family caregivers provide physical and emotional care to loved oneat home. In such a case where the caregiver is overwhelmed, the nurseis supposed to assess the magnitude or level of the care required,the condition of the patient, and the specialized support that may beneeded.
7. A chronically-ill patient is referred as one whose health conditionor disease is persistent/long lasting. Different factors affect thequality of life of chronically ill patients. These entail factorssuch as financial status, access to health care and facility, levelof medical advancement and equipment’s. In addition, social andpsychological factors also impact the quality of a patient’s life.
B.PromotingIndependence while Reducing Risk Factors in Older Adults
1. The quality of life for older adults is dependent on differentfactors. Some of the factors that influence the quality of life arethe quality of care given to the older adult, access to medical care,financial strengthen, social and psychological factors, the abilityto maintain good health. In a nutshell, the factors can be summarizedas physical factors (safety, hygiene, and pain relief), intellectualfactors, i.e. stimulation, Emotional factors, and finally good socialfactors.
2. As the people ages, their role as well as changes, within the familychanges. One of the common role changes that are experienced by theaging is the aspect of family support and Caregiving amonggenerations. The aging persons often provide care, and support tofamily members, grandchildren or to their children.
3. Roles reverse is a situation that is denoted by a person adopting arole that is not the normally assumed or expected one in relation toan elder another. With reference to the aging parents, the aspect ofCaregiving for the elderly is an example of role reversal. When anelder parent needs care, it’s the family members such as thechildren that steps up to take the role of a parent so as to takecare of the aging adult.
4. With the increasing number of older adults, there have beendifferent and numerous care options that have been devised to carefor the older, and aging people. Some of these options include homecare, assisted living care options, use of nursing homes.
5. Elder abuse has become a disturbing menace among the elderly peoplein the community. Elder abuse may come as a form of neglect,physical, sexual, financial or social abuse. Some of the common signsof physical abuse include burns, abrasions, bruises, broken bones.In case of neglect, the older adult may show signs such as dirtyclothes, bed sores, lack of medical aids, etc. signs of emotionalabuse include Strainedor tense relationship, and Withdrawaland apathy. Other signs include bruises around private parts in caseof sexual abuse, as well as bills not being paid as a sign of billsnot being paid. However, the most common abuser in elder abuse is thechildren or family members, caregivers, and nursing staff.
6. Fall is referring to the aspect of dropping of a person from astanding position, or falling from exposed positions such aswheelchair or steps. In most cases falls can occur to any person,however, older adults are more prone to falls than other people.Falls can lead to severe injuries to an older adult, whereas theseverity of the injury depends on the height of the fall. When anelder person falls, he/she may suffer from injuries such as brokenlimbs, bruises among other injuries. Fall may impact the olderperson’s mobility.
7. Falls among the elderly have numerous related risks. One of themajor risks is that, they threaten the independence of people. Inaddition, since fall impacts the mobility, it possesses the risk ofdehydration among people, poor life quality risk factors as can becategorized as intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors and exposure torisk.
Intrinsicrisk factors are referred as the risk factors or variables than anindividual is capable of controlling or preventing. Example ofintrinsic factors involves fitness levels, nutrition and weight. Onthe other hand, extrinsic risk factors are factors than an individualis powerless over them. This means, one isn’t able to control, orprevent him/her from the risks. Such risks entail aspects such ashealth hazards, environmental factors, incorrect techniques etc.
8. Falls among the elderly adult in the community is a common source ofinjuries. Most of the fall (55%) is believed to occur in theirhouses. Lesser falls (23%) however, are experienced outside thehouse, while 22% of elderly falls are experienced away from thehouses. Other prone areas where the falls among the elderly are notedare in bathrooms, kitchen, bedrooms, as well as living rooms. In mostcases falls among older adults occurs during their movement. In manycases their physical fitness is limited ad in turn, their mobility issomewhat limited. This in turn contributed to a higher number offalls when the older adults are walking.
9. Different measures can be implemented to prevent falls among olderadults in their homes or in nursing homes in order to prevent fallsamong older adults, through removal of tripping hazards, installinggrab bars, good lighting in their houses, as well as making the floornon-slip. In addition falls among the older adult can be preventedthrough the use of assisting devices such as clutches, walkingsticks, and a wheelchair when the case is severe. Finally, one canuse restraints, such as belts.
10. Medical restraints are restrains that are used to restrain patientswith no or minimum comfort, and pain, hence preventing them frominjuries to others as well as themselves. They can either be chemicalor physical restraints There are different types of restraints thatcan be used in hospitals include limb restraint, lap and wheelchair,body holders, safety vests and jackets among many others.
11. Thereare different effects of using restraint among the elderly. One meritof their use is that, they help in controlling elderly mobility. Thedevices give physical support to the elderly. In addition, restraintshelp the elderly from injuring themselves and others around them.However, use of the devices can lead to over-reliance on the devicesby the elderly.
C.Promoting Health and Independence in Older Adults
1. Medicare is a social insurance in the United States offered by thefederal government to provide health insurances for Americans whoattains the age of 65 and above, and also people with disabilities.The service provides numerous preventive services such as
-Cervical and vaginal cancer screening
-Alcoholmisuse screening and counseling
-Glaucomatests, among many other preventive care services
2. With reference to the review of the healthy people for the decades2010 vs 2000, there is a disparity in terms of goals and objectives.This has in turn brought along differences between the two decadeshealthy people review. The 2000 goals of the Healthy People programincluded increasing the span of healthy life among the Americans, andreducing health disparities as well as achieving access to preventiveservices. For the case of 2010, the goals and objectives entailedenhancement of life expectancy and quality.
3. Health promotion is defined as a well laid process that enablespeople to have an increased control over their health hence improvingit, through social and environmental interventions. On the otherhand, health screening is defined as an undertaking of defined testfor a healthy population with an intention of identifying individualswho may be at risk or at early stages of a disease, and may not beshowing the symptoms.
4. There are three different types of prevention i.e. primary,secondary and tertiary. Primarypreventionis the prevention that is offered and it’s aimed at preventing andinjury or a disease long before it occurs. For example, provision ofeducation about safe and healthy habits. Secondarypreventionis conducted to reduce the impact of an injury or disease that hasalready been experienced. For example, mammogram tests to detectbreast cancer. Finally, there is the tertiary prevention that isimplemented to soften the impact from an ongoing injury or illness.For example, stroke rehabilitation programs.
5. Barriers to physical activity among older adults entail safetyconcerns, environment, transportation, and location accesslimitations, health status, such as a chronic condition andmedications, availability of resources and the nature of thecondition of the older adult.
6. Sedentary lifestyle is a lifestyle that has little or no physicalactivity. Sedentary lifestyle has been known to contribute topreventable cases. Some of the risks related to sedentary lifestyleinclude diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, deep vein thrombosis,increase in mortality rate among the elderly, high blood pressureamong other related risks. 7. Intrinsic risk factors are referred as the risk factors or variablesthan an individual is capable of controlling or preventing. Exampleof intrinsic factors involves fitness levels, nutrition and weight.On the other hand, extrinsic risk factors are factors than anindividual is powerless over them. This means, one isn’t able tocontrol, or prevent him/her from the risks. Such risks entail aspectssuch as health hazards, environmental factors, incorrect techniquesetc.
8. Older adults are at the risk of poor nutrition due to psychologicaland environmental factors hence reducing their appetite. Loss ofvision and hearing, poor mobility, diminished ability to look afteroneself, and diminished cognitive function.
D.Technology-Assisted Care of the Older Adult
1. Electronic records in the medical sector have numerous merits. Theseadvantages include
-Provides up-to-date and accurate information about patients wheninformation is needed
-Allows for quick access to information, hence saves time
-Improves sharing of information among the clinicians
-Helps to reduce medical errors in recording
-It enables safer and reliable prescribing
-Helps to better adeptness
2. Different information’s about patient’s health can bederived/obtained from electronic records
-Lab and test results etc.
3. Older adults can be introduced to new technology through assisteduse of the intended technology. Other ways to introduce a newtechnology is through awareness-raising, training, provision ofsubsidies, and offering ongoing helps.4. Assistive technologyis equipment or an item that is used to increase or improvefunctional capabilities of people with disabilities. Thesetechnologies entail reacher’s or grabber’s hand held magnifierswalkers, large print text etc.
5. Examples of high tech assistive technology electric healthcare,alerting device, screen readers, hearing aid voice recognitiondevices, modified keyboard, and touch widow among others.
E.HealthCare Systems and Health Policy
1. Does Medicare Part A cover custodial Care?NO
2. Custodial cars is the provision of supplies and services for adaily living of a person that can be offered reasonably and safely bypeople who are neither licensed nor skilled medical personnel 3. Does Medicare cover preventative care? YES. For example Depressionscreening
-Cervical and vaginal cancer screening
-Alcoholmisuse screening and counseling
-Prostatecancer screening4. Does retirement age for Social Security remain constant? NO
5. Is there a penalty for retiring early to collect Social Securitybenefits? YES6. MeetingQuality of Life goals is the burden of the Triple Aim Goals7. TheAffordable Care Act provides financial relief to adults aged 50-65through fully funding by the government
F.Palliative Care and End-of-Life-Care
1. Signs of impending death loss of appetite, excessive fatigue andsleep, increased physical weakness, disorientation, difficultybreathing, social withdrawal, coldness of toe and finger tips, andMottled veins
2. The two main categories of pain are nociceptive and neuropathicpain. Whatare they two main categories of pain? The best medication for thistype of pain is Pharmacotherapy.3. Should an older adult in pain and receiving palliative care beconcerned with addiction? NO4. Hospice referral is done when the physician believes the patient’slife expectancy is 6 months or less. Advantages of hospice referralinclude comprehensive, interdisciplinary care to the patient,improved care for the patient with a round clock monitoring.