Cognitive Science





Selfreferencing is a process through which individual’s learns how toperform certain mental tasks that have a number of elements or steps.When individuals perform certain mental tasks, this information isstored in the memory and recurs when a related task is performed.Individuals develop a mental impression every time they perform amental task related to a similar task performed previously. Thismeans that individuals make connection between incoming informationand information stored in the memory in order to understand aparticular situation. In Self referencing human behaviors areself-components learned through direct experience or when one iscommunicating with others. Individuals learn various behaviors basedon situations that one is exposed to. This means that individualsrefer to information learned in previous situations to form newhabits or intervention in consequential situations.

DissertationProposal Outline

Chapter1: Introduction

I.Purpose of the study

Theaim of this study is to investigate how individual’sself-referencing leads to learning, development of new attitudes andbehaviors.

II.Problem statement

Individualsdevelop learning and mental attitudes through self-referencing andmaking inference on tasks performed on related elements. This meansthat individuals have in-built components that are acquired throughdirect learning and these self-components help individuals makeconnections when similar tasks are performed. The question is howdoes this self-referencing lead to learning? How doesself-referencing on related elements leads to differential inlearning and attitude formation?

III.Research Objectives

Infuture studies it is important focus on the following objectives thatrelate to the self-referencing theory

a).what previous authors have analyzed concerning the development ofattitudes


b).Establish how attitudes and learning develop through theself-referencing process.

c).to assess the cognitive process, how does individuals createconnection between

storedinformation and incoming information.

IV.Dissertation structure

Thisdissertation document starts with introduction in chapter one, thisis followed by theoretical framework in chapter two, methodology iscovered in chapter three, results and analysis will be discussed inchapter four and conclusions in chapter five.

V.Theoretical Framework

Thisstudy is mainly based on the theoretical knowledge that concerns thescientific model and the two main theories that support this studyare the general theory of self-referencing networks and the theory ofprimary and related elements.

ChapterII: Literature Review


Selfreferencing is a cognitive process where individuals createconnection between incoming and stored information to create meanings(Lord, 1980). Individuals’ previous experience forms the basisthrough which new meanings are formed when similar scenarios arefaced. In self-referencing, individuals tend to use the first personpronoun and this defines their perception of their situations.

Thehuman memory system has complex structures that affect encoding ofessential information and this leads to different perceptions indifferent situations.Bower &amp Gilligan (1979) argues that individuals have differentschemas that influence judgment on specific issues. The self inindividuals is the most influencing schema since it has evaluativeand affective components. In this way, individuals self-referenceaffects individuals perception and attitudes when faced withdifferent situations.

ChapterIII: Methodology

3.1Data Collection

Studiesin this dissertation will adopt deductive reasoning approach in whichconclusions will be drawn from theoretical information. Explanatorymethod that involves quantitative and qualitative research would beappropriate in explaining how cognition process and attitude takesplace. Data would be gathered through primary and secondarytechniques in order to assess how self-reference takes place. A mixmethod would help in reducing bias and provide more insight on thestudy topic.

3.2 Sample selection and characteristics

Astudy for this topic would focus on learners aged between 4 to 12years who are in elementary schools. Respondents would be dividedinto groups to facilitate easy data collection through the cognolizermodule. Grouping would be based on closeness of ages since childrenundergo cognitive development in similar stages i.e. 4-5 years.

3.3Data Analysis

Duringdata collection, scale of ranges based on “agree” or “disagree”would be used. These ranges would help in easy analysis of thecollected information. Data analysis will be done through statisticalapplications such as SPSS and Microsoft Excel to derive standarddeviation and average measures. These measures will help in easyinterpretation of collected quantitative and qualitative data. SPSSprograms will be used to develop graphs and charts for easy datainterpretations.

3.4Ethical considerations

Anumber of ethical aspects would be considered in this research. Inparticular, the study will seek to protect the dignity,confidentiality and participants’ consent to participate in thestudy. In addition, high standards of professionalism when dealingwith the minors would be maintained. The researcher would also desistfrom forming opinions that might lead to bias.

ChapterIV: Presentation, analysis and discussion of the collected data

4.1Presentation of the collected data

4.2Analysis of the collected data

4.3Discussion of the obtained results

ChapterV: Recommendation and conclusion


5.2Research difficulties and limitations

5.3Future research perspectives


Bower,G. H., &amp Gilligan, S. G. (1979). Remembering information relatedto one`s self.&nbspJournalof Research in Personality,&nbsp13(4),420-432.

Lord,C. G. (1980). Schemas and images as memory aids: Two modes ofprocessing social information.&nbspJournalof Personality and Social Psychology,38(2),257.