COMMUNITY TEACHING PLAN 9
of the Teaching Plan
Thetopic of discussion is “Primary prevention of cardiovasculardisease.” The venue of teaching is the Romanian Orthodox Church inBrodward County, Florida. The estimated cost of the event is $1500.The estimated time of the teaching sessions is 25 minutes. Some ofthe equipment to be used as teaching aids is an overhead projector,handouts for the audience, a blood pressure cuff, glucometer, screen,questionnaire, T-shirts, weight lifts, glue, tapes, and snacks. Theaudience is estimated to be 100 people mostly 65 years and above,with few younger people in their forties and a couple in theirtwenties.
Thetransformative learning theory is used to first change the perceptionof the audience about cardiovascular disease, and secondly, teach andencourage them to adopt lifestyle changes that would reduce theirpredisposal. This teaching plan is part of the public strategy toinform the public about the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, therequisite lifestyle change, and the actions to take in the event ofdiagnosis. The report also has an epidemiological rationale for thereport, which explains the state of cardiovascular health in theUnited States and the steps that can potentially reverse the trends.The epidemiological rationale points also states and explains thefactors behind the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseasessuch as hypertension and heart failure. Lifestyle changes the planrecommends to the community include dietary choices and exercises. Informulating the teaching plan, the existing misconceptions aboutcardiovascular diseases and lifestyle changes influence the teachingtechniques adopted due to the need to debunk and clarify them. Theteaching plan core objective is to educate, sensitize, inform, andtrigger action from members of the community. The epidemiologicalrationale provides different definitions of disease so that a changein the wordings does not later affect the general understanding ofcardiovascular complications. The community also needs to understanddifferent cardiovascular diseases in a manner that empowers membersto differentiate the risk factors and symptoms for eachcardiovascular disease described. The epidemiological rationaledivides the risk factors into two: controllable and non-controllablerisk factors.
Thecommunity’s knowledge of the prevalence of cardiovascular diseasesis presented through statistical reports from the United StatesDepartment of Health. Prevention measures the teaching sessionintends to impart to the community are healthy eating and livinghabits that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The evaluationsection evaluates the teaching experience, the response of thecommunity to the teaching, the areas of strength of teaching andplaces the community on the right side of adherence, and the areas ofthe improvement that would make future teaching more beneficial tothe community.
Theepidemiology of cardiovascular diseases is sufficient proof of theneed for concerted effort from the health sector and otherstakeholders to provide education across the country so that peoplecan live with the knowledge of their predisposal to it.Cardiovascular disease is the most killer non-communicable disease inthe United States. In spite of the strides made to decrease themortality rates as a result of cardiovascular disease, the past fiftyyears had an overall increase in the aggregate impact. The number ofpeople dying of cardiovascular disease and those surviving with animpeding risk of recurrence continues to worry the heal sector.Although the number of deaths could be falling, the rates ofdependency and resultant disabilities are alarming. In the 1990s, theoverall mortality rate fell by 17%, however the number deaths thatactually died of cardiovascular diseases increased by 2.5% (Grunbaum,Kann, Kinchen, Ross, Hawkins, Lowry, …& Collins, 2004). Theheartbreaking statistics could be attributable to an increase in thenumber of older members of the society, above sixty five years. Thisage group has a higher predisposal to cardiovascular diseases,therefore, contributing a higher proportion to the snowballingnumbers than any other age group.
Accordingto the Department of Health and Human Services, cardiovasculardiseases are an epidemic that is likely to keep bothering the nationdue to its multifaceted disparities. Teaching the public is part ofthe public health efforts that can potentially and significantlyreverse the current trend. Thus, it is vital to discuss the majorand minor causes of different cardiovascular diseases. Understandingthe causes paves way for a comprehensive review of some of thepreventive measures that individuals and the community can initiateto reduce risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.
Themajor causes of cardiovascular disease are either controllable ornon-controllable. Controllable risk factors are those thatindividuals and the society can take necessary measures toreduce(Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, &Gerberding, 2004). They are riskfactors associated with lifestyle therefore, lifestyles change sothat people reduce the chances of being statistics. They include:
High blood pressure
Poor diet and physical activity
Overweight and obesity
Non-controllableor non-modifiable risk factors are those that individuals have nocontrol over, but can only take preventive measures especially due toage. Sex and gender are also non-modifiable factors that individualscannot change.
Healthy diets: Foods which make up healthy diets are healthy fats (raw nuts, olive oil, fish oil, flax seeds, and avocadoes), fruits and vegetables, cereals, whole grains, fish, poultry, calcium, and protein. One should avoid red meat fried chicken, whole milk, and packaged foods because they are likely to contain high sodium (salt).
Exercising: Exercising helps in burning a lot of cholesterol in the circulatory system. Examples of regular forms of exercises are walking, biking, weightlifting, swimming, and jogging. Exercising should be done in three phases: warming up, conditioning, and thencooling down. The ideal duration for exercising is 25-30 minutes, three to five times a week.
Monitoring cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure
Aspart of this teaching program, the community needs to be aware ofmyths and misconceptions about cardiovascular diseases. There arecommon beliefs in the public domain that only elderly members of thesociety are prone to heart attacks. Many people also believe theheart attacks occur instantly and it is the fastest way to die. There are also recent misconceptions that cardiovascularcomplications can be treated using enhanced surgical and medicaltechnology.
Thetruth is that 32% people who died of cardiovascular disease in thelast decade were below seventy years old(Kuh&Shlomo, 2004). Thecurrent average age of dying to cardiovascular diseases is 75 yearsof age. 50% of people how died of cardiovascular heart disease inthe same period, did not have a history of the disease and did notreach hospital upon suffering a heart attack (p.23). These statisticsshow that only preventive measures could work for them. Preventivemeasures are ideal for the community because they can reacheverybody. While many people think that a heart attack often killsinstantly, most patients actually suffer incapacitation making themdependent on their loved ones such as family or community caregivers.They are also at an increased risk of suffering subsequent attacks. Modern treatment techniques and technology instrumentally increasethe chances of survivors to live longer, but cannot reverse the fateof victims who die instantly after suffering an attack. Finally,preventive measures have the capability to significantly reduce therisk of cardiovascular diseases.
Evaluationof the Teaching Experience
Theaudience was very impressed with the presentation. Many of themespecially the elderly did not have knowledge of healthy eatinghabits. Most of them had for long, thought that exercises are theonly ways to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, most ofthem believed the myths and misconceptions about cardiovasculardiseases. After informing them about the myths and misconceptions, amajority were appalled by how much they had been misled. Of greaterinterest to all the participants was the concept of prevention. Elaboration on the food pyramid was done thrice so that they couldunderstand the kinds of foods that comprised a healthy diet.Stafftook the initiative to explain that types of exercise throughphysically demonstrating. Members of the audience also took part inthe exercises. The fact that members could actively re-state whatthey had learned showed that the teaching session was successful.
Therewere also a few challenges during the session. The handouts wereinsufficient and the participants had to share the handouts. Theparticipants were from different social and cultural backgroundshence, they sought clarification everyone now and then.
CommunityResponse to teaching
Theparticipants responded by requesting more tests for diabetes,cholesterol, and blood pressure. They also began to exercise moreoften than before.
Areasof Strength and areas of improvement
The importance of the topic to the audience: The number of peoplesuffering from the effects of cardiovascular disease is overwhelming.The lesson will change the lives of the audience. Suppose suchteaching activities take place in all localities across the nation,the incidence of cardiovascular disease will drop significantlybecause people will be able to prevent rather than treat the disease.
Thetiming of the lesson: as stated above, a majority of those in theaudience were people of 65 years over. The lesson was the right timeto change their lifestyle so that they reduce the chances ofsuffering from cardiovascular diseases. The timing was alsoimportant for the younger members of the audience because they have achance to also change their lifestyle to eliminate the risk factorsfor cardiovascular diseases.
Thepotency of the proposed activities and ideas: The proposed ideasduring the lesson are creative. The activities and the topic had thepotential to transform the lives of the participants and thecommunity.
Themajority of the audience was older people therefore, reducing thepossibility that they will not only retain the information but alsouse it for their own benefit. The intervention for this weakness isfollow-up activities, which are quite expensive to execute. Anotherweakness is insufficient funding for staff and resources needed forteaching. Follow-up activities are very expensive as well. For theinitiative to succeed, staff must get enough funding fromstakeholders.
Grunbaum,J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., .&Collins, J. (2004). Youthrisk behavior surveillance–United States,2003. MMWR: Surveillance summaries, 53(2), 1-96.
Kuh,D., &Shlomo, Y. B. (2004).Alife course approach to chronic disease epidemiology(No. 2).Oxford University Press.
Mokdad,A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., &Gerberding, J. L. (2004).Actualcauses of death in the United States,2000. Jama, 291(10), 1238-1245.