Crimesagainst children can be described as any unjust treatment towards anindividual who is considered a child. The crimes include emotionalor physical abuse, exploitation, neglect, sex trafficking, childpornography and child abandonment among others. There is no precisedefinition of a child, but most Acts depict a child as anyone belowthe age of 18. Additionally, they can be viewed as persons who areunder the care and guardianship of adults. This group forms one ofthe most susceptible and blameless victims of crime. Empiricalstudies suggest that crimes against children are frequentlyperpetrated by caretakers, relatives and even parents among otherindividuals charged with guidance and care. It is therefore up tophysicians, school officials, police officers and other figures ofauthority to report any abusive signs against children. This paperwill try to extensively outline the various societal injusticesfacing children as well as whom the major perpetrators are. An indepth analysis of the various aspects of crimes will be illustratedaccordingly. Analyses of several scholarly articles and journals willbe utilized to adequately illustrate the topic at hand.
Crimescaused by babysitters
Recentresearch studies have indicated an increasing harassment of childrenby childcare workers. The babysitters mishandle children, ignore themor even spank them for no apparent reason. The babysitters are seento cause a significant portion of crimes against children. Mostparents are forced to leave their children under the care ofbabysitters due to job commitments among other reasons. It istherefore upon the babysitters to handle the kids properly. However,it is not the case in some homes and children care centers. The normhas led to policy makers as well as parents to raise concern over thematter leading to a wide adoption of preventive measures. Forinstance, concerns in child safety have led to the use ofsurveillance equipment to keep watch of workers taking care ofchildren. Additionally, immense screening techniques have beendeployed to check criminal records among other background informationof babysitters [ CITATION Dav10 l 1033 ].
Crimescaused by parents and guardians
Someparents and guardians also commit crime against children in a numberof ways. For instance, denying them education, use of abusivelanguage, abandonment, spanking them for no apparent reason amongothers. Research also indicates that parents who are workaholics failto appropriately instill discipline on their children. With minimalattention especially emotional one, parents end up raising childrenwho are morally flawed. In that respect, the kids may join criminalgangs and participate in criminal activities. Therefore, it is up tothe parents and guardians to instill discipline in their children bymonitoring them from a tender age. Lack or rather minimalattentiveness of parents and guardians towards kids can be deemed ascrime against the children [ CITATION Dav10 l 1033 ].
Thedifferent kinds of crimes against children
Technologyhas advanced tremendously over the years, with the number of peopleusing computerized gadgets increasing. The number of children who areonline today is also quite high as compared to a decade ago. In thatrespect, internet crimes have also increased. Children have becomethe most vulnerable group, with criminals targeting them in variousaspects. For example, predators contact children via the internet andoppress them by
Producing, manufacturing and distributing child pornography via the internet
Enticing the kids via online contacts with an aim of sexual engagement
Introducing children to pornography and further encouraging them to exchange inappropriate materials.
Exploiting children and introducing them to sexual tourism i.e. traveling to different areas to engage in sexual acts with the aim of gaining commercially and personal gratification [ CITATION USD10 l 1033 ].
Accordingto a survey conducted by the United States department of Justice,children victimization was characterized under for kinds
Sexual approaches and solicitation i.e. appeal for sexual talk and activities or giving personal details on sexuality that are unwarranted
Forceful sexual solicitation i.e. enquiry for offline contacts such as telephone by the perpetrators
Unwarranted exposure to inappropriate sexual materials
Harassment i.e. threats and other offensive contents
Thesurvey suggested numerous victims were rather unperturbed by whattheir perpetrators asked form them mainly due to limited knowledge.It is also evident that children who are offended lack knowledge onthe appropriate means to report their offenders [ CITATION USD10 l 1033 ].
Sexualcruelty against children includes rape, threats, beatings, tortureand even murder. The children suffer from sexual violence underdifferent situations. During conflicts i.e. family conflict,inter-country conflicts, tribal conflicts etc. children are leftvulnerable. In countries experiencing armed conflicts, children areprone to recruitment and abduction to be used by the forces. Bothgirls and boys are used by the armed forces for sexual satisfaction.Countries experiencing such ordeals include DRC, Colombia,Afghanistan and South Sudan. Children in these areas are forced tobecome a property of several fighters, providing sexual services [ CITATION Sex13 l 1033 ].
Childrenare also forced to flee their homes to neighboring countries duringconflicts or even becoming internal refugees. They are leftunprotected and quite vulnerable to sexual offences. Child protectiongroups in Syria affirm that young children at a tender of 12experience sexual abuse even in detention. The prevalence of suchnorms is hard to determine since most survivors do not report to theappropriate authorities fearing victimization. In 2007, childrenespecially girls in government run institutions in Lebanon complainedof sexual harassment when visiting washrooms. Sexual violence is apredominant feature in many refugee camps across the globe. Thoughmany institutions have raised awareness of the damning factssurrounding the camps, the preventive mechanisms established do notcompletely deal with the norm [ CITATION Sex13 l 1033 ].
Theprecise number of children involved in sex trafficking within theUnited States is not known due to varying mechanisms of describingthe population. Children sex trafficking is more dominant than evenlabor trafficking within the United States. According to data fromthe human trafficking reporting system (HTRS), 82 percent of humantrafficking cases between 2008 and 2010, were categorized as sextrafficking. 40 percent of the cases involved sexual exploitation andprostitution of children. Sex trafficking has been made worse by theever increasing demand. The laws governing these norms are also quitelenient on purchasers of sex workers. They seem to punish sextraffickers more rather than destabilize the purchasers so as toreduce the demands. Sex trafficking is therefore a norm affectingchildren at various capacities [ CITATION Kri15 l 1033 ].
ChildrenNeglect and Abandonment
Thedescription of child abandonment and neglect defers across differentcountries. However, the most general definition entails refugees,kids given out for adoption, war victims, orphans among others. Apartfrom that, children can also be abandoned by their parents andguardians. Neglect is a vicious norm developing across many familiesespecially those that do not have the capabilities of raising theirkids. In some 3rdworld countries, families lack family planning knowledge hence, givebirth to large families which they are incapable of raising. Childrenare then forced to wander way worldly to look for means of survivaland end in the streets [ CITATION Pro12 l 1033 ].
Crimesagainst children can be quite vast. They include neglect, sexualviolence, sex trafficking, internet victimization among others. Asevidenced above, the offenders are also quite vast and can range fromparents or guardians to armed forces. Children are therefore avulnerable to many offences of which they have little or no knowledgeabout. As much as bodies have been created to champion or rathersalvage them, they still face numerous challenges across the globe.Developed countries suffer from internet crimes, underdeveloped havenegligence issues while countries with conflicts mostly suffer fromsexual harassments. The scope of children crimes is therefore quitebroad and justice systems across the globe have a huge task ofprotecting the children.
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