One may wonderhow he or she developed diabetes. One may worry that his or herchildren may also end up with diabetes. Unlike other traits, thisdisease does not seem to be inherited through a simple pattern. It isalso clear that people may end up developing the disease more thanothers. But what leads to developing diabetes? To begin with,diabetes is of two types: Type 1 and type 2. Both of them havedifferent causes. However, two common factors are essential in both.With both, one inherits disease’s predisposition, and thensomething in an individual’s environment triggers it (Loughrey,2010). With the disease, genes alone are not enough. One of themproves is the identical twins. Both of them have identical genes. Oneof the twins, yet, may end up with type 1 Diabetes and the other onegets the disease, more often, with half the time. The papertherefore, will examine the disease (Diabetes), and its relation toeverything genetics.
Geneticconsequences that end up in development of Diabetes, food, whichrepresent environmental factors and level of exercise, are some ofthe important factors involved. Individuals with diabetes are eitherobese or overweight. Some of the inherited factors are important, butfrom the genetic point of view, gene mutation represents aconsequence that result in the disease. “Diabetic genes” showsubtle differences in the sequence of the gene, which is often common(Loughrey, 2010). Genetic consequences with traits are seen, forexample, in the entire genome of the family members affected. Traitsare followed with several generations of large numbers of affectedpairs of the siblings. To compare and contrast the normal diseasestate and genetic differences, pre-diabetes is characterized by nosymptoms but a few risk factors, which include smoking, obesity, andheart disease (Loughrey, 2010). Diabetic differences on the otherhand are identified with changes in specificity in the genes contentin diabetic and non-diabetic person. In comparison, both diabeticsituations involve composition of the gene, slight variation in theDNA, and its susceptibility.
Diabetes isinherited depending in the type. Diabetes is often known to run inthe family. If one of the family members has Diabetes, there is ahigh chance that another member would be diagnosed with. One inheritsthe condition, especially when a diagnosed individual is sufferingfrom a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome where the person developsadrenal gland and parathyroid disorder, which is often found in thetype one diabetes (Loughrey, 2010). This also provides an insight onthe population genetics, which also relate to the condition. It isevident that a lot of people, especially with type 2 disease are notaware that they are diagnosed with as compared with those with type 1disease (Loughrey, 2010). This is because population genetics, inUnited States for example, have an estimate of 1.5 million peoplediagnosed with type 2 disease every year as compared to 400,000diagnosed with type 1 disease.
There is arelationship which involves genetic transfer of information and theoverall structure of the nucleic acids. Genetic transfer involves theflow of information which is dependent on genetic code. This codedefines relationship between Sequence bases in DNA and Protein’samino acids (Loughrey, 2010). The relationship relates to the code,which is equal in all the bases available, known as the codon, andamino acids specifies. In messenger RNA, codons are sequentially readby transfer RNA, which helps to act as the adaptors in synthesis ofthe proteins.
Frombiochemistry review of Diabetes, fatty acids in the body of a personare mobilized from the adipose tissue and are then transported to theliver. There, they are degraded into an acetyl-CoA. Under certainconditions like starvation, while in the liver, oxaloacetate is thenremoved out of the citric acid for the gluconeogenesis. This then,slows down the capacity of citric acid cycle, and thus preventmetabolism of fatty acid from getting out of the CAC, and instead,converts to ketone bodies. The biochemistry ensures that running CACconverts ketone bodies back to the acetyl-CoA, so as to use them inCAC.
The aboveexplained biochemistry review forms an underpinnings on thetechniques of prognosis, diagnosis, and medical treatments. To beginwith, the technique on prognosis involves recognition of high bloodsugar, especially with pregnant women. Prognosis also involvesprevention of low blood sugar by the hormones created by the body.Through the technique use, prognosis is seen to be as a result of theinability of pancreas to produce insulin maintains the effects ofhormones (Loughrey, 2010). Secondly, diagnosis involves biochemicalblood test that reveals a higher than is normal levels of bloodglucose in the blood, with excess of it in the liver. When diagnosedwith the condition, a person is likely to have the following thecarrying out the techniques: Impaired fasting glucose, which iscarried out when the level of blood glucose is considered higher thannormal, but is still below levels of diagnosis of the condition.Techniques for treatment involve no actual treatment but practicesthat would ensure blood sugar level in the blood is maintained withinrecommended standards. Major areas involve proper check of the diet,weight gain or loss, and physical activity levels.
In conclusion,type of genetic testing currently available, which includeheterogeneity of data for diagnosed diabetes and the meta-analysis ofinformation collection from a diagnosed person. These are a highlyvariable primary methodology that ensures that different risk modelsare presented for analysis (Loughrey, 2010). For instance, withmeta-analysis, increase in the number of novel variants of geneticsincrease its susceptibility to the kind of diabetes one is diagnosedwith.
Loughrey, A.(2010). Explaining diabetes. Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media.