Effective communication paper


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Processof verbal and nonverbal communication and associated components

Verbal communication goes beyond spoken language. It entails visual,spoken andelectroniccommunication (Esposito, 2007). Therefore, it canbe described as the sharing of information between two or moreindividuals by using speech. People engaging in a conversation haveto use readily understood spoken words, and ensure that the otherperson/people get the information they are wish to pass. This is doneby warranting enunciation, tone of the voice and stress on the words.On the other hand, non-verbal communication is the process of passinginformation between two or more people without using speech(Esposito, 2007). Additionally, wordless clues are an element innon-verbal communication. The clues include kinesics, paralanguage,sense of touch and other physical gestures, which do not involve useof speech. Both verbal and non-verbal communication share threeprimary components. These are the communicator, the message, and thereceiver of the communication. These three components complete thecommunication cycle, and if one is missing, there would be nocommunication.

Differencesbetween listening and hearing in communication

Both hearing and listening skills are important for effectivecommunication. Additionally, there is a major difference betweenexcellent hearing and excellent listening skills. According toEsposito (2007), it is possible to hear someone speak withoutactually listening to their words. Hearing is therefore aphysicalmeasurement of the sound waves that are transmitted by thecommunicator. These sound waves get transformed into audibleinformation by the brain. Therefore, hearing can occur without payingattention to the concernsof the speaker. Hearing, as such, is apassive quality. On the other hand, Esposito (2007) says thatlistening goes beyond the normal hearing. A good listener is one whopays attention to the message being passed by the communicator, witha general intention of understanding every bit of the information.Additionally, a good listener does not bias any information beingpassed by the communicator, as this would only suffice to hearing.Therefore, a good hearer gets the physical component of the messageclearly, whereas a good hearer understands the message in thecommunication.

Formaland informal channels of communication in criminal justiceorganizations

Formal communication channels help the criminal justice organizationsto put inplace active measures in a defined chain of command (Ming,2010). These channels are used in part of trials and investigations,and the information is used by the interested parties, such as thecomplainant and prosecutors. Formal communication is in the form ofpolicies, orders and procedures, which are used by the criminaljustice departments to maintain authority. All the people involveduse similar procedures and respond in a defined way. For instance,reporting a car theft case and filling formal files to be used by theinvestigators. On the other hand, informal communication is theopposite of formal communicating, whereby information is obtainedwithout using the stipulated channels (Ming, 2010). For instance, apolice officer may decide not to use official records to obtaininformation about a certain case, and engage the witnesses in anout-of-record conversation. Informal communication can help to fosterunderstanding and clear misunderstandings in a certain case.

Differentbarriers to effective communication in criminal justice organizations

Wadsworh (2006) says that there are certain barriers that hinderunderstanding in general communication. These are emotional, physicaland semantic barriers. However, in criminal justice processes, thegreatest barrier involves semantics. This is the level ofunderstanding of wordsbetween different people. The criminal justicesystem, like all other fields, has its terms and expressions hat holdcertain meanings. This can cause problems in stances whereprofessionals in the criminal justice system are communicating withoutsiders, that is, people with no knowledge of the system. Anothermajor barrier is listening (Wadsworth, 2006). In the criminal justicesystem, listening skills highly determine the outcome of the process.Merely hearing the message and failing to understand may underminethe sourcing of facts and two-way communication, greatly demeaningthe process. For instance, a foreigner reporting a crime in theirnative language needs a good listener to understand the elements ofthe crime. . In the criminal justice system, no matter the type ofbarrier, the results degrade the efficiency of the system anddecrease the potency of the entire system in service delivery(Wadsworth, 2006). As such, professionals in communication have comeup with different ways of solving the problem.

Strategiesto overcome communication barriers in criminal justice organizations

Doss et al. (2014) assert that one the best and most effectivestrategy to solving the issue of communication in the criminaljustice system is improving listening skills. By doing this, thejustice officers can be able to understand the message beingcommunicated, despite barriers such as the emotional and physicalcondition of the communicator. This can be done by concentrating onthe sender, understanding the message and responding to iteffectively. Additionally, by adhering to the three components ofcommunication discussed above, the officers in the criminal justicesystem will be ableto overcome the barriers. Additionally, there arelocalized solutions which mainly deal with policy formulation andorganizational culture in various department of the criminal justiceorganizations.


Doss, D.A., Glover, W.H., Goza, R.A. &ampWiggington, M. (2014). Thefoundations of communication in criminal justice systems.Hoboken, NJ: CRC Press.

Esposito, K. (2007). Fundamentalsof verbal and nonverbal communication and the biometric issue.Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Ming, F.C.C. (2010). Formal and informal communication: Anorganizational investigation. Melbourne, Australia: University ofSouth Australia.

Wadsworth. (2006). Writing and communicating for criminal justice.Wadsworth incorporated fulfilment.