Effects and Response to Tuberculosis in China

Effectsand Response to Tuberculosis in China

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Effectsand Response to Tuberculosis in China

Tuberculosis(TB) is a possibly serious disease that affects a person`s lungs.Bacteria causing tuberculosis is spread from one individual toanother through tiny droplets spread into the air via coughs andsneezes.

LiteratureReview on TB in China

Thereare immune responses of an individual towards the act containing oreliminating tuberculosis from the tissues of a person. There is anestimation of eight million new cases of tuberculosis each year(Flynn, 2004). Such a big number shows that the response system thatmedics put in place to fight disease are not sufficient. Tuberculosishas commonly evolved difference of methods to dodge destruction bythe immune response.

Between1991 and 2000, it is said that there was a reduction of theprevalence of tuberculosis in areas of China (China TuberculosisControl Collaboration, 2004). The collaboration estimated that in2000, that in a population of more than half a billion, there were382 000 cases of fewer prevalent culture-positive effects oftuberculosis in China. However, one would argue that thecircumstances might have reduced as China has the quality of medicsthey have in their country.

Therewere 37% of TB cases that was suspected for any professional care.The cases were as a result of low-income groups that were less likelyto seek care (Zhang et al., 2007). Given the number, the governmentof China had to find ways avail appropriate and affordable TBservices to the poor population.

Afterthe SARS had brought the epidemic of tuberculosis under control, thegovernment of China raised its commitment and leadership to addresspublic-health issues (Wang, Liu &amp Chin, 2007). The governmentimplemented a large internet-based disease reporting system where thegeneral public could easily report any problem on human health. In2005, a detection of problems of tuberculosis increased to 80% thatwas as a result of the government initiative. Scholars also relatepoverty to TB incidences. Even after taking control to address issuesof smoking and other risk factors, poverty still resulted intuberculosis in China (Jackson et al., 2006). Poverty is considered acause and an outcome of TB.

ReviewMatrix on Tuberculosis in China

Author(s) (Year) Title

Purpose of the Study

Method

Sample

Findings

Themes

Similarities

Uniqueness

Flynn, J. L. (2004). Immunology of tuberculosis and implications in vaccine development.

To examine the effects immune response system to tuberculosis in the human body.

Qualitative Descriptive.

The Tuberculosis Patients and Animals.

Responsive immune system has the ability to reduce M. tuberculosis.

Immune response

Both individuals and animals had an immune system capable of reducing the impacts of tuberculosis in the body.

Tuberculosis is still affecting both the poor and the rich irrespective of immune system.

China Tuberculosis Control Collaboration. (2004). The effect of tuberculosis control in China.

To report the effects of tuberculosis on the people of China and the weaknesses of the health system.

Quantitative Survey.

China health facilities

Most of the health facilities and workers did have the qualifications that were needed to address the problem of tuberculosis in the country.

Readiness to address tuberculosis.

Almost all the health workers had some kind of weaknesses.

Health institutions were expected to be the source of help for the general public yet it was not.

Zhang, T., Tang, S., Jun, G., &amp Whitehead, M. (2007). Persistent problems of access to appropriate, affordable TB services in rural China

To address the problems that existed in china that made most members of the public not to get appropriate redress to tuberculosis in their body.

Qualitative Observations.

Both the poor and able members of China.

The initiatives put in place by the government were not reaching the whole population of China, mostly the poor Chinese.

Chinese Population.

The government’s efforts to address the problem of tuberculosis mostly benefited the abled members of the society and not the poor.

The poor Chinese remained affected by the challenges irrespective of the government’s efforts yet the program was meant to benefit all citizens of China.

Wang, L., Liu, J., &amp Chin, D. P. (2007). Progress in tuberculosis control and the evolving public-health system in China.

Jackson, S., Sleigh, A. C., Wang, G. J., &amp Liu, X. L. (2006). Poverty and the economic effects of TB in rural China.

Examining the relationship between Tuberculosis and Poverty in China.

Quantitative Survey.

Affected People versus Economic Status

There were connections between poverty level and tuberculosis in China. Tuberculosis resulted to poverty while poverty also resulted to tuberculosis among the population.

Relations.

Poverty levels contributed to a rise in tuberculosis. A rise in tuberculosis also contributes to poverty.

Either factor resulted to another therefore, eradicating any of them required the government to look for ways of eradicating both of them for the betterment of the society.

TheArticles on TB in China

Flynn,J. L. (2004). Immunology of tuberculosis and implications for vaccinedevelopment. Tuberculosis, 84(1), 93-101.

Thereare some scholars that have attempted to study the problems that TBcauses to individuals. There is a type of tuberculosis calledmycobacterium that is a pathogen that can survive and stay in thebody of a person in the face of a vigorous immune response. Theimmune response is sufficient to prevent disease in the infectedpersons, and this provides compelling indication that there is apossibility of immunity to tuberculosis. Both the studies of animalmodels and humans demonstrate a broad range of components of immunethat involve in an adequate response to M. tuberculosis.

ChinaTuberculosis Control Collaboration. (2004). The effect oftuberculosis control in China. The Lancet, 364(9432), 417-422.

Afterexamining the people of China in 2000 for tuberculosis, there werecases of 375 599 eligible individuals at 257 survey point from all31 mainland provinces. The study was conducted through stratifiedrandom sampling. It was found that young children aged between 0–14years were suspected suffering from tuberculosis in case they had aninduration of 10 mm or more after tuberculin skin test. On the otherhand, adults that had a persistent cough. The diagnosis oftuberculosis on the citizens of China was by chest radiograph andculture.

Zhang,T., Tang, S., Jun, G., &amp Whitehead, M. (2007). Persistentproblems of access to appropriate, affordable TB services in ruralChina: experiences of different socio-economic groups. BMC PublicHealth, 7(1), 19.

Therewere large-scale programs for tuberculosis (TB) control in China thatwas a success. However, there was concern whether the program wasreaching all sections of the population, mostly the poor Chinese.

Wang,L., Liu, J., &amp Chin, D. P. (2007). Progress in tuberculosiscontrol and the evolving public-health system in China. The Lancet,369(9562), 691-696.

Thecountry of China is the world`s second largest tuberculosis epidemic.However, there were some signs of progress in the control of thedisease in the country in the 1990s. Medical research on the issue ofdisease showed that the spread was stagnated around 30% of the newestimated cases. The indications of inadequacy in the control oftuberculosis were linked to the failures of the health system in thecountry. The weaknesses in the health system were reported by thespread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003.

Jackson,S., Sleigh, A. C., Wang, G. J., &amp Liu, X. L. (2006). Poverty andthe economic effects of TB in rural China. The International Journalof Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(10), 1104-1110.

Ina study that was targeting the investigation of the effects oftuberculosis illness on the economic activities of individuals livingin China, it was realized that it contributed to poverty. Poverty isseen as a cause and a frustrating outcome of TB. The increase inschemes to reduce cases of poverty in China should include reducingthe TB disease in the China.

References

ChinaTuberculosis Control Collaboration. (2004). The effect oftuberculosis control in China. The Lancet, 364(9432), 417-422.

Flynn,J. L. (2004). Immunology of tuberculosis and implications in vaccinedevelopment. Tuberculosis, 84(1), 93-101. Abstract

Jackson,S., Sleigh, A. C., Wang, G. J., &amp Liu, X. L. (2006). Poverty andthe economic effects of TB in rural China. The International Journalof Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(10), 1104-1110.

Wang,L., Liu, J., &amp Chin, D. P. (2007). Progress in tuberculosiscontrol and the evolving public-health system in China. The Lancet,369(9562), 691-696.

Zhang,T., Tang, S., Jun, G., &amp Whitehead, M. (2007). Persistentproblems of access to appropriate, affordable TB services in ruralChina: experiences of different socio-economic groups. BMC PublicHealth, 7(1), 19.