Ethical Theory





Johnbelieves that by using the wrong information to stop the client fromsmoking is good because it has a good outcome. There is no doubt thatthe client will believe john and quiet smoking, although theinformation he is given is incorrect. While the tactic will not causeany harm, but will have positive health consequences. On the otherhand, although Mary wants the client to quiet smoking, she thinksthat John’s proposal is unethical. Mary’s argument is based ondeontological theory of ethics while John arguments are based onutilitarianism theory.

Accordingto deontological theory, Mary and John have a moral obligation togive the client the correct information. The theory is based on theargument that to solve an ethical dilemma, one should consider his orher obligations and duties to another individual or the society. Ifan individual fulfils his duties and obligations, he is actingethically. The theory is based on the thoughts of Immanuel Kant whoargued that an action is good or bad depending on whether it obeysthe rational duty (Waller, 2005). Thus, Mary and John have the moralduty to inform the client on the dangers of smoking by providing thecorrect information.

Accordingto John, giving the wrong information to have a positive outcome isethical. This is based on utilitarianism theory of ethics whichstates that an action is good or bad depending on the outcome or theconsequence of the action. An action whose consequences are pleasureand happiness for the greatest number of people is considered to beethical. On the other hand, an action that results into suffering isethical (Singer, 2011). According to John, giving the client thewrong information will result into the greatest happiness andtherefore it is ethical.


Singer,P. (2011). PracticalEthics,Third Edition. Cambridge University Press.

Waller,B. N. (2005). ConsiderEthics: Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues.New York: Pearson Longman.