GARNDER’S INTELLIGENCE 1
Inthe modern psychological studies, a number of scholars have reviewedthe idea of intelligence. One such scholar was Howard Gardner. Thispaper looks at three forms of Gardner’s intelligence. They areself-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence), social experience(interpersonal intelligence) and numbers or logic(logical-mathematical intelligence) (Gardner, 2011). Gardner saysthat he introduces each intelligence “in terms of an end state-asocially recognized and valued role that appears to rely heavily on aparticular intellectual capacity” (Gardner, 1999, p.48).Intrapersonal experience describes the understanding of one’s owninterests and goals, and people within these paradigms often tend toshy away from other people in the community. They can be tested toassess how well they function when operating alone. Interpersonalexperience describes the understanding and interaction of otherpeople within the community, and people are tested by their level ofrelationships with other people. On the other hand,logical-mathematical intelligence describes reasoning andcalculating, and people can be tested by their ability to viewpatterns and relationships abstractly (Gardner, 2011). There are alsomultiple intelligence tests that can be conducted to determine thegreatest form of intelligence in a certain culture. There is no needfor different tests, because Gardner asserts that the traditionalgeneralized tests are biased and inaccurate.
Gardnersays that that these different types of intelligence are in practiceabilities to solve problems or to create solutions, which are valuedin a cultural, setting (Gardner, 2003). This therefore means thatintelligence is the use of a certain culture’s symbolic systems tounderstand their environment. As such, Gardner implies that eachculture plays a significant role in the way that symbolic systems arevalued and developed. A selected culture from a certain geographicalregion may therefore value a certain form of intelligence more thanothers, and at the same time, a different culture from anothergeographical location may under-value than very form of intelligence.Additionally, according to Gardner, the theory of multipleintelligences emerges from the “neurological and cross-culturalevidence” (Armstrong, 2009). This means that there has to be abroad conception of intelligence as influenced by culturaldifferences, and realization that there is no way of valuing one formof intelligence in equal measures across all cultures. To demonstratethis, there shall be an evaluation of two form of intelligence fromtwo different cultures from geographical locations. These are theWestern culture, and the traditional African culture (huntingculture).
In the Western culture, the people are more into developing theireducational and technological skills (Earley & Ang, 2003). Themost celebrated people in this culture are those that have spent alot of time doing personal research and coming up with innovationsthat have changed the entire society’ way of living. Thisinfluences more people to be interested in spending more times ofbooks, meaning that they will be spending more time alone doingresearch. Given that this culture has high regard for understandingone’s own interests and goals, they value intrapersonalintelligence. At the same time, Earley & Ang (2003) assert thatlogical-mathematical intelligences are highly valued, given they helpdefine the level of modernism and technology. On the other hand, in atraditional African culture, one of the major economic and socialactivities is hunting. The members of the community have high regardfor intelligent hunters, who have an ability of hunting more preythan the average hunters hunt. In hunting, the people need to besocial and connect well with other hunting members, meaning that theycan collaborate even in the harshest conditions optimum results.Given this, members of this culture value intrapersonal intelligence.
Armstrong, T. (2009). Multipleintelligences in the classroom.Ascd.
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S.(2003). Culturalintelligence: Individual interactions across cultures.Stanford, Calif: Stanford Business Books.
Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligencereframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century.New York: BasicBooks.
Gardner, H. (2003). Intelligence inseven steps. NewHorizons For Learning, Creating the Future. Report retrievedDecember, 21,2005.
Gardner, H. (2011). Framesof mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.Basic books.