GENETIC ENGINEERING 5
Geneticengineering involves intentional controlling by manipulating thegenetic makeup of an organism, aiming to make it better through themade alterations (Devos,et al, 2008, 32).It is a process done completely separate from the natural way oforganism reproduction. As a result of the modifications done, theoutcome is referred to as a genetically modified organism. Most ofthis type of engineering has been dedicated towards agriculture toimprove food security in a climate change affected world.
Advantagesof genetic engineering
Oneof the most profound uses of genetic engineering is the ability toisolate the exact genes that cause various ailments thus, giving themedical researchers ability control and prevent diseases andillnesses (Devos,et al, 2008, 36).The process can as well help to transfer desirable traits from oneorganism to the other, with an objective of improving it organicallyfor better production. Another advantage is that genetic engineeringcan be used to create a variety of superior organisms made from theimprovement of the existing ones(Devos,et al, 2008, 37).This would facilitate traits that are stronger and more adaptable tothe climatic changes for better and improved productivity of otherspecies. It can as well enable scientists to use antigens andantiviral proteins to help prevent the spread of contagious andinfectious diseases.
Disadvantagesof genetic engineering
Onthe contrary some impacts of genetic engineering have veryconsequential irreversible impacts associated with them.This ismore so in cases where professional scientists manipulate the geneticsequence to obtain the main purpose of human reproduction organs onmedical grounds (Devos,et al, 2008, 41).These impacts could have caused serious complications that neverexisted before on the organisms. It is also viewed as a directcontravention to the natural laws of existence in relation to thereligious beliefs (Devos,et al, 2008, 43).This results from people questioning the validity of science what Goddesigned to exist in its natural form, thus raising the moral issues.
Geneticengineering ethical issues and public views
Fora very long time, this topic has generated a lot of heated debatequestioning not only the environmental impacts but social, legal,religious and cultural aspect of the same. Genetic engineering hasserious positive implications in our society but, the negativeimpacts especially upon human health and the environment can as wellnot be ignored. The precautionary principal observes that noactivity should exist as long as it has negative impact on anotherorganism (Ormandy, Julie, and Gilly, 2011, 545)
.This has led to many protests against use of animals in scientifictest questioning the violation of the involved animals’ intereststhrough the suffering involved. The major concern revolves aroundthe unknown and hidden effects of the GMO on both human beings andthe environment (Ormandy, Julie, and Gilly, 2011, 546). For instance,there have been cases of strange allergies being triggered byconsumption of some GMO like soybean, thus raising serious healthconcerns on GMO products.
Thereare also major concerns on the possible negative side effects on theother organisms that priory depended on the organisms that have beengenetically modified (Ormandy, Julie, and Gilly, 2011, 547)
.The welfare and the life span of the genetically engineered animalsand plants have raised concern as well. This is in regards to thewillingness of the organisms involved, the pain and the possiblereplacement of the original organisms with the genetically modifiedanimal organisms. Other than this, there have been concerns regardingthe morality of respect for creation and the morality behind humanrecreation through the use of science. This in a major way is seen bysome religions as a way of man competing and challenging Godsupremacy.
Insome quarters, the benefits of genetic engineering cannot beoverlooked. This is in regard to the ability of the science toproduce plants that are resistance to drought, pest and diseases aswell as weeds (Ormandy, Julie, and Gilly, 2011, 549). This in thelong run is perceived to reduce the harmful effects of herbicides andinsecticides, as well as prolonging the crop and animal resistance inadverse conditions and improving food security. Pro science peoplealso hold the view that modified animal and crop products haveimproved quality and prolonged life span on the shelves in stores inadditional to having a prolonged nutritional value(Devos,et al, 2008, 54).
Geneticengineering has both negative and positive impacts. The positivesbeing many are mostly misunderstood due to lack of enough facts andexplanations, leading to disregard of the scientific efforts made toimprove human life. As long as there is no violation of rights andlaws governing human life and the environment, genetic engineeringshould be given a chance to bridge the gap created by environmentaldegradation. This will facilitate improved food security amidst theclimate change and prolonged better life through prevention ofdiseases and treatment, as long as there is measured research that isobjective rather than subjective.
Devos,et al. "Ethics in the societal debate on genetically modifiedorganisms: A (re) quest for sense and sensibility." Journalof Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21.1(2008): 29-61.
Ormandy,Elisabeth H., Julie Dale, and Gilly Griffin. "Geneticengineering of animals: ethical issues, including welfareconcerns." TheCanadian Veterinary Journal 52.5(2011): 544-550