Group Case Study

GroupCase Study

GroupCase Study

Thefield of counseling is highly influenced by ethical and legal issuesthat guide professional counselors. In the case of Naomi, anappropriate counselor should either be a licensed professionalclinical counselor (LPCC) or a licensed marriage and family therapist(MFT). The scope of practice for LPCC is defined by the CaliforniaCode of regulation, Title 16. The regulation holds that an LPCCshould apply psychotherapeutic and counseling interventions mendmental and cognitive issues, such as adjustment to disability andcrisis interventions (DCA, 2012). Therefore, an LPCC should start byhelping Naomi’s father adjust to his current disability. Thecounselor can achieve this by helping the father accept his conditionand motivate him to move on with life.

AnLPCC should use interventions that seek to reduce Naomi’s and hermother’s stress and change their behavior. The counselor should usethe cognitive behavioral therapy, which equip clients with the skillsthat they need to deal with challenges associated with beliefs,thoughts, and attitude (Connell, 2010). However, success can only beachieved if the counselor manages to help Naomi and her motherovercome denial and agree to speak out.

Whilethe LPCC addressed the needs of each individual member of Naomi’sfamily, MFT is more qualified to analyze problems arising from therelationships of these family members. The Title 16 of the CaliforniaBusiness and Professions Code, Section 4980.02 mandates an MFT toexamine interpersonal relationships with the objective ofestablishing satisfying, adequate, and productive family and marriageadjustments (DCA, 2012). Naomi sounds angry with her parents andstates that they are overreacting. The MFT should focus on mendingthe relationship between Naomi and her parents. The MFT needs toconvince Naomi that her parents are not overreacting, but they areconcerned about her well-being since they love her.

Boththe LPCC and MFT should follow five major steps for successfulcounseling sessions. First, the counselors should establish a solidrelationship with the clients (Naomi and her parents) and take therelationship to an extent that they can feel safe and believe thatthere is some hope for the future of each of the family members (AtRisk Youth Programs, 2015). This will help the counselors inconvincing Naomi to collaborate since she has already denied that shehas a problem. Secondly, the counselors should determine the natureof the challenge that each client is facing. Naomi and the mothersuffer from depression that resulted from broken relationships whilethe father stressed by the problems with his family coupled with hisown disability. Third, the counselors should collaborate with eachclient and set goals that each of them should pursue during therecovery process. After setting the goals, the counselor should startapplying the concepts of CBT to equip the clients with the skillsthey need to achieve their goals (ARYP, 2015). Lastly, counselorsshould embark on the assessment process, which should involve thedetermination of whether the clients are achieving their goals andwhat needs to be adjusted for faster recovery. Counselors shouldcontinue adjusting the therapeutic process until Naomi and the motherare able to overcome suicidal ideation and all clients overcome theirdepression.

TheAmerican Counseling Association provides principles and ethicalguidelines that counselors should follow when dealing with clients.For example, ACA’s code of ethics prohibits counselors fromengaging in romantic relationships with clients for 5 years after thelast session (ACA, 2014). The counselors should avoid romanticrelationship with Naomi or her parents. In addition, counselors arerequired to maintain the highest level of confidentiality byprotecting the information obtained during the sessions (ACA, 2014).The counselor should encrypt the data collected using the moderntechnological devices.

Inconclusion, counselors are guided by professional principles andethical codes of conduct that help them retain a professionalrelationship with clients. In the case of Naomi and her parents, allthe family members need to be undergoing the counseling sessions. Thefamily can be assisted by an LPCC or MFT.


ACA(2014). ACAcode of ethics: As approved by the ACA governing council.Alexandria: ACA.

AtRisk Youth Programs (2015). Five stages of counseling an at-riskyouth. At-RiskYouth Programs.Retrieved June 23, 2015, from

Connell,C. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxietydisorders in children. RivierAcademic Journal,6 (2), 1-6.

Departmentof Consumer Affairs (2012). Whatare a LMFT, LCSW, LPCC, and LEP?Sacramento, CA: State of California.

Group Case Study

GroupCase Study

GroupCase Study

Thecase study focuses on the negative side effects of a drug introducedinto the market by Merck with the approval of the FDA. The main issueis that the pharmaceutical company, Merck, claimed that the drug(rofecoxib) is safe for use while FDA, which is a regulatoryauthority that allowed the sale of the drug without followed theright approval procedure (Topol, 2004).

Traitsand skills of primary leaders

Theprimary leaders can be characterized by three major traits. First,the Merck leaders are irresponsible and have a “don’t careattitude”. Good leaders are expected to foster responsiblegovernance since their decisions affect the entire organization(Spear, 2010). Merck leaders have been selling and marketing the drugfor public use in spite of the fact that it has been shown to causeserious myocardial infarctions while FDA leaders allowed the use ofthe drug without assessing its impacts on the health of theconsumers. Secondly, the leaders are insensitive to the concerns ofother people. Credible researchers and members of the public havealready raised complaints, but leaders at Merck insist that the drugis safe. Offering harmful products to consumers is unethical anddamages the reputation of the company and its management (Eckhardt,Belk &amp Devinney, 2010 and Vassilikopoulou, 2008).

Shortcomingsof traits and skills of primary leaders

Theirresponsibility of Merck leaders can be attributed to their greedwhere they sacrifice their health of their consumers at the expenseof high profits. This is unethical because pharmaceuticals areexpected to enhance the well-being of consumers by offering qualityproducts (Santoro, 2005). The irresponsible nature of FDA leaders canbe attributed to being incompetent to serve because they have failedto carryout their mandate of inspecting and ensuring that productsare safe before they are presented for public consumption (FDA,2015).

Themajor systemic issues in the case include the lack of proper qualitycontrol measures and the lack of suitable strategic goals andobjectives. It is evident that both the FDA and Merck lack specificdepartments can be held accountable for the release of a harmfuldrug. This can be addressed by forming the quality controldepartments in each firm, which should be held accountable for thepoor quality of the products that is released to the market. Merck ispursing a misleading goal of maximizing profits, irrespective of themeans of doing so. The company should formulate goals, missions, andstrategic objectives to ensure that they focus on people and thewell-being of consumers, instead of focusing solely on financialgains.

Inconclusion, leaders of Merck and FDA are irresponsible, incompetent,and insensitive to the concerns of other people. The systemic issuesaffecting Merck should be addressed by establishing departments orunits that should be held responsible for the quality of drugs andformulating correct strategic objectives.


Eckhardt,M., Belk, R. &amp Devinney, M. (2010). Why don’t consumers consumeethically? Journalof Consumer Behavior,9, 426-436.

FDA(2015). What we do. FDA.Retrieved June 22, 2015, from

Santoro,A. (2005). Pharmaceutical ethics. OpenMedicine1 (1), 58-59.

Spear,C. (2010). Character and servant leadership: Ten characteristics ofeffective, caring leaders. TheJournal of Virtues &amp Leadership1(1), 25-30.

Topol,E.J. (2004). Failing the public health-Rofecoxib, Merck, and the FDA.TheNew England Journal of Medicine, 351(17),1707–1709.

Vassilikopoulou,A. (2008). The ethical and unethical dimensions of marketing.ManagementReview,3 (2), 49-60.