Health Prompts





  1. Discuss the role of stress on health and illness. What factors contribute to stress? What is the difference between signs and symptoms? What methods can we employ to reduce stress, and how do they work?

  1. Discuss the role of stress on health and illness

Therole of stress in health and illness varies from one person toanother since it is influenced by among other factors the personalityof the individual and the social support available to him. In somepeople, stress has significant impact on their health while othersare able to cope well with stress. Nonetheless, stress worsens thesymptoms and implication of diseases such as diabetes, peptic ulcersand cardiovascular diseases. Although it has been argued that stressis one of the causes of these diseases, the effects of stress on thepatient are of more concern. Although stress is sometimes as a resultof illness, stress makes some of the symptoms worse. For example,stress is associated with increased pulse rate and blood pressurewhich makes cardiovascular diseases worse. The human body has theability to react to stress. Although these body reactions are veryessential, they may have negative impacts on an already sick person(Harrington, 2013).

  1. What factors contribute to stress?

Thereare many factors that predispose an individual to stress. Theyinclude personal factors, genetic factors as well as environmentalfactors. Some of the main factors that contribute to stress includethe individual’s health (for example when diagnosed with a chronicdisease), emotional problems, mental illnesses, substance abuse andthe individual’s personality. Stress also is as a result ofproblems in the relationship, lack of social support, major changesin life, tragic losses such as death and conflicts in a family.Stress can also be as a result of environmental and social factorssuch as overcrowding, noise or pollution. Unemployment, financialproblems or job related problems are also major contributors tostress in the modern society (Harrington, 2013).

  1. What is the difference between signs and symptoms?

Signsand symptoms describe the same condition, mainly illness. However,they are different. While the doctor sees the signs, the sickindividual experiences the symptoms. A symptom can be descried as acharacteristic of a disease while a sign is an indication of thedisease. Signs are physically manifested and can be easily identifiedby a doctor through physical examination, for example, bleeding, highblood pressure, fever or abnormal pulse. On the other hand, symptomscan only be described by the sick individual to the doctor.

  1. What methods can we employ to reduce stress and how do they work?

Stresshas huge impacts on an individual’s life and health. Since factorsthat contribute to stress are universal and are part of daily life,dealing with stress is a critical aspect of an individual’s life.While some situations require psychiatric help, individuals have theability to reduce stress. Stress can be reduced by avoidingsituations that result into unnecessary stress. By avoid people andsituation that contribute to stress, an individual is able toeliminate the stressors. However, in some cases, the stressors areunavoidable. This would require the individual to accept thesituation and adapt to it. For example, the stressor could be one’sjob, which is difficult to quilt, illness or death of a loved one.Accepting and adapting to the stressor is essential in reducingstress in these circumstances (Harrington, 2013).

  1. Discuss the health of yourself or someone you know (be sure to disguise any identifying information). Using the biopsychosocial model, discuss biological risk and/or resilience factors, psychological risk and/or resilience factors, and social risk and/or resilience factors that contribute to the health or illness of yourself or this individual. What factors might need to be modified in order to help you (or this individual) achieve good health?

  1. Discuss the health of yourself or someone you know

John(not his real name) is a 21 years old African America man who issuffering from drug and alcohol abuse and related complications. Inaddition to being unemployed, John is homeless and has a pendingcourt case. He has a swollen knee which requires urgent medicalattention but has nobody to attend to him. The injury is associatedwith his substance abuse. In the past, he has suffered emotional,sexual and physical abuse which has contributed to his currentcondition. Since he was 14 years, John has depended on alcohol andother hard drugs resulting into addiction. It is clear that Johnhealth has worsened mainly due to poor diet and the effects of drugs.

  1. Using biopsychosocial model, discus biological risk and/or resilience factors, psychological risk and/or resilience factors and social risk and /or resilience factors to be modified in order to help you (or this individual) achieve good health.

Abiopsychosocial model can be used to help John achieve good health.The route cause of John’s problem is the dependence on drugs. Abiopsychosocial model will identify the biological, psychological andsocial risk factors that contribute to John’s condition.Eliminating the risk factors is the most important step in improvingJohn’s health. There are biological factors are risks that couldpredispose John to drug abuse, which includes genetically inheritedfactors. However, these genetic characteristics that may predisposean individual to drug addiction can not be controlled. However,social and psychological risk factors can be eliminated. Thepsychological factors include stressors such as homelessness,emotional disturbance, and effects of physical and sexual abuse andunemployment which could have forced him to indulge in alcohol.Social factors such as peer pressure, abandonment by the family andlack of social support can also contribute to John’s condition. Bymodifying these social and psychological situations, John’s healthcan improve significantly (Galizio, 2013).

  1. Select two of the following systems: immune system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, reproductive system, or cardiovascular system. Discuss how these two systems interact with each other in order to maintain health. Discuss the factors that can negatively influence each of the two systems to produce illness.

  1. Discus how these two systems interact with each other in order to maintain health

Theimmune systems include all biological structures in a human body thatare responsible for protecting the individual against diseases. Theimmune system protects the body by reacting appropriately to apathogen in the body. The digestive system converts the food a personeats into nutrients which are useful to the body. The digestivesystem and the immune system determine whether a person is sick orhealth. Diseases in a human body are caused by pathogens, mainlybacteria. Almost all these pathogens live in or get into the bodythrough the digestive system. As a result, over 80 percent of theimmune system activity takes place in the digestive system. Theinteractions between the gut and the immune system influence thehealth of an individual. When the immune system is balance, themicroorganisms in the gut are balanced (Lipski, 2005).

  1. Discuss the factors that can negatively influence each of the systems to produce illness

Thereare many factors that negatively affect the interaction of thedigestive system and the immune system resulting into one of themcausing disease. The most important factor that can result intodiseases as a result of negative interaction is food sensitivities.Food sensitivities such as undigested proteins in the digestivesystem can result into reactions by the immune systems those resultsinto health complications. I some individuals undigested proteins isinterpreted as pathogens (bacteria or virus) resulting intoconditions such as anaphylactic. Another factor that may have healthimplications is over stimulation of the immune system by thedigestive system. Problems such as poor digestion can also affect theimmune system directly or indirectly resulting into health problems(Lipski, 2005).


Galizio,M. (2013). Determinantsof Substance Abuse: Biological, Psychological, and EnvironmentalFactors.Boston, MA: Springer.

Harrington,R. (2013). Stress,health &amp well-being: thriving in the 21st century,United States: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Lipski,E. (2005). Digestivewellness,New York: McGraw-Hill.