LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Theliterature review provides an incisive overview of the ten academicsources earlier discussed in the annotation. The topic of discussionis human resources management in different sectors with the core goalof providing a multiplicity of professional and academic perspectivesof the authors on the subject. Through the literature review, thereader will explore the diversity of human resource managementpractices that authors discuss in different literature. On completionof the incisive literature review, the conclusion summarizes theassertions of the authors in the sources with a subsequentrecommendation on what future research should entail. Therecommendation also directs the reader to the specific areas in humanresource management that require further research as a result factorssuch as absence of academic literature, limited empirical research,and unexploited information in regard to enhancing continuousdiscourse on the dynamics of human resource management.
Therole of effective human resource management in any organization is tocreate working conditions that maximize the potential and skills ofthe employees. Hence, this literature review borders on the vitalityof using different human resource approaches to reach the samedesired end of improved organizational performance for differentbusiness environments. The observations, assertions, and academic orprofessional positions of authors fundamentally create a guide onwhat should constitute future research. The academic sources alsoenhance the position of the final research paper on human resourcesmanagement. Although the literature review only discusses tenacademic sources, which include books and journals, there are othersources whose authors provide different perspectives from any of theauthors in these sources. The choice of sources reflects themultifaceted styles of human resource management in differentorganizations in the same industry and different industries as well.
Armitageet al, (2008) explored the concept of adaptive co-management as astrategy to improve the response of institutional frameworks to thepolicies that management adopts in different business circumstances. Although the authors focus is on the application of adaptiveco-management practices to enhance ways in which organizations andthe society can manage different ecosystems, they observe that theconcept is applicable in any business environment. Unlike the otherauthors in this discussion, Armitage et al, acknowledge that thereexist long-standing dilemmas between the environment and the societyon how best to manage the relationship. Considering thatenvironmental conservation is one of the most critical modern-dayethical concerns for most organizations, the assertions of theauthors vitally provide the direction of how the human resource canbe streamlined to ensure that most of these dilemmas are resolved.According to the authors, adaptive co-management enablesorganizationsto initiate experimental and experiential ways throughwhich employees can learn to respond to environmental dilemmas. In anorganizational perspective, they assert that the human resourcesdepartment should have a working template that guides all employeesespecially those involved in the production and distribution sectionsof the value chain on how to make environmentally plausibledecisions. The authors also address the socio-ecologicalcomplexities of the modern business and economic environment. Hence,they provide ways of improving the response capabilities of employeesbased on the core features of adaptive co-management. Through theirrecommendations, it becomes clear that the human resources have apivotal role to play in enhancing the ecological responses of theorganization in the modern context.
DianeArthur (2004), in his fourth edition on Fundamentalsof Human Resource Management, describesthe management of human resources management broad terms. Some of theissues that Diane offers in-depth discussions about are the functionof the human resource in the organization, legal issues affectinghuman management, the whole employment process, testing techniques,compensation, performance management, specific benefits ofadministration, employee relations, training and development, andmanagement systems pertaining to human resource management. Of allthe academic sources discussed, Diane provides the most directinformation on the subject of human resource management as whole.Through Diane’s research and experience on issues of human resourcemanagement, the reader understands fundamental issues such as staffratios, human resource budgets and operating costs, the effect of theorganization’s brand on human resources, and the legal issues inrespective industries. In general terms, Diane’s work embodies thefeatures of successful human resource practice whose core goal is toachieve the long-term missions and goals of the firm. As Dianeobserves, all the issues highlighted above, must have a positiveimpact on the growth of the organization in terms of revenuegeneration, enhancing organizational capabilities, and increasingproductivity.
GodefroyBeauvallet and Thomas Houy (2009) also provided a comprehensiveliterature review on lean management and the issues that constitutelean management practices. Beauvallet and Houy examine the positionof several authors on lean management and conclude that all thesources insist on shop floor management practices, knowledge sharingtraditions, and establishment of an operators control systems as thecornerstones of lean management. They use the Toyota productionsystem to illustrate how lean companies manage their human resources.Beauvallet and Houy further conclude that lean human resourcemanagement entails merging middle management with the company’ssupport services with all production processes rather than leave themto be divergent processes.
Hengsky(2013) shares the assertions of the Gary Dessler, a celebrated authoron issues of human resource management. The main issues the Hengskyidentifies among many of Dessler’s extensive research and findingson human resource management are equal opportunity and the law. Inessence, Hengsky approaches the subject in a similar manner as DianeArthur except that most of his contributions are simply a reiterationof Dessler’s writings about ways that organizations an enhanceequal opportunity for both existing and prospective employees.Hengsky analyzes some of the legal environment about the issue ofequal opportunity. One of the issues that he highlights is theSupreme Court case of Albemarle Paper Company vs. Moody. Hengskyunderscores the importance of the ruling in the hiring process offirms because it laid out a specific test on how organizations needscreen prospective employees. Hence, reiterates that as way to complywith this legal standard, organizations must ensure that theydisclose the expected performance standards during recruitments, usefederal validation procedures, provide the duties andresponsibilities, and meet all the obligations set out in theAmericans with Disabilities Act. Although Hensky’s contributionsto the subject echo the works of Dessler, they vitally simplify themfor a better understanding by industries and research.
Hollenbeck,Gerhart & Wright (2004) have different insights on how theorganization can enhance the contribution of the human resource tothe overall performance. They observe that decisions concerning thecomposition of the human resource have a huge impact on outcomes suchas profitability, customer satisfaction, the quality of products, andcost efficiency. They, therefore, conclude that an effective humanresource strategy must aim toward perfection these aspects becausethey are the measures of organizational performance. Thus, theorganization’s priority should be to have the right people in eachdepartment. According to Hollenbeck, Gerhart, and Wright, the rightpeople are those with the right attitude, relevant skills, andcompetency to meet market demands.
Accordingto Macan (2009), interviews continue to be the most used approach tohire employees. Macan also notes that prospective employees considerinterviews as a fair way to assess the employability of applicants. Unlike the authors discussed above, Macan is specifically addressesinterviews as vital recruiting tool. Other authors chose to explorethe entire human resource management issues through variousperspectives. Macan identifies the prediction capabilities ofstructured interviews, the specific measurements that interviewstarget, and the applicant and interviews aspects that are likely toaffect the interview process as thethree main issues that havescholars have paid a lot of attention in research. Thus, humanresource practitioners rely on research about the three issues tomake key human resource decisions. Macan recommends that the threeother issues that need in-depth research are a common model ofstructuring interviews, specific constructs that a conventionalinterview would measure, and crafting consistent labeling, terms, andmeasurements.
Accordingto Matamala (2014, the organization’s image determine the employeeswho aspire to work in it. Matamala decided to look at theorganization’s image from the perspective of prospective employees.He asserts that an organization can create a quality human resourceby communicating its image to the prospective employees throughdigital platforms such as social media and webpages. Recruitmentprocesses for the organizations must shift from the traditionalmethods to modern electronic methods that allow potential recruits toknow more about the organization. In other words, Matamala proposesthat digital platforms should become the primary means ofcommunication rather than a secondary one because they can reach awide spectrum of people. This way, the organization will have accessto diverse talent that would want to be associated with a positiveorganizational image because of the immense awareness created throughdigital media.
Mahoney(1995) explains a resource-based approach of improving theperformance of the organization. Although Mahoney made views in the1990s, they still make utmost sense in the modern context. The humanresource is part of an organization’s heterogeneity that it cantake advantage of to create more economic rent hence, Mahoneysuggests that it is not excluded from as one the vital sources of itsbreakthrough. In Mahoney’s words the human resource is also partof the much-needed resource accumulation and organizationalcapabilities that create a competitive advantage in whicheverindustry it operates.
Wilkinson(2009)mentions almost all the aspects that the rest of the authorsdiscuss, but there is one aspect that sets him out of the rest:managing the voice of employees in the organization. None of theauthors mentioned how the organization can deal with dissent onseveral issues such as management decision, work conditions, and pay. Considering that these issues directly affect employees, Wilkinsontakes a vital position that adds value to this research paper.According to Wilkinson, neither employers nor employees want theorganization to under-perform because that would have direct effectson profits and subsequently lead to loss of jobs. Thus, for theorganization to manage the voice of employees, it needs todistinguish and be aware of the influence of employee relationsdecisions compared with other cooperate level decisions (Wilkinson,2009).
Allthe authors agree on one vital aspect: the human resource essentiallydefines the capabilities of the organization. All processes in theorganization depend on the quality of its employees and also thevalue it derives from them. The only differences that arise amongthe authors are the perspectives they choose to approach the subject.While some such as Armitrage et al, Beauvallet and Houy, Mahoney andother choose to approach the subject in general, Macan and Matamalause a more specific approach by pinpointing a specific aspect ofhuman resource management such as recruitment and organizationalimage. Literature reviews are vital sources of research insights andliterature on the subject therefore, they provide the basis uponwhich research fills information gaps about human resourcesmanagement.
Thisresearch comes at a time when there is continuous need for furtherresearch on the issue of human resources management. There severalissues by the authors above. Hence, they are the basis of therecommendations on the issues that future research need to focus on. Future research needs to address the 21stcentury trends and emerging issues in human resource management thatthe authors did not talk about such as:
The impact of aggregate human resource practices on the economy: There is less research in the impact of several economic aspects such as interest rates, inflation, exchange rates etc. on human resource issues such as hiring, strategies, and budgetary allocations.
Inter-firm and inter-industry competition for a skilled workforce: These aspects have an impact on immigration policies, geographical mobility of labor, employer branding, and benefits strategies. However, few authors have written research papers on this trend.
The influence of advancements in information, communications technology: Although there is immense research on ICT and business, the relative availability of research material specifically targeting human resource management is limited. Furthermore, the topic still needs in-depth research because it is technology is progressive in nature.
Demographic changes: The changes in demographics are affected by factors such as aging and immigration. Future research needs to address how these changes are likely to impact human resource management.
Armitage,D. R., Plummer, R., Berkes, F., Arthur, R. I., Charles, A. T.,Davidson-Hunt, I. J., …&Wollenberg, E. K. (2008). Adaptiveco-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecologyand the Environment, 7(2), 95-102.
Arthur,D. (2004). Fundamentals of human resources management.AMACOM DivAmerican Mgmt Assn.
Beauvallet,G., & Houy, T. (2009). Research on HRM and lean management: aliterature survey. International Journal of Human ResourcesDevelopment and Management, 10(1), 14-33.
Hengky,S. H. (2013). Fundamentals of human resource management. Journal ofHuman Resources Management and Labor Studies, 1(2), 39-40.
Hollenbeck,J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2004).Fundamentals of humanresource management (Vol. 2).McGraw-Hill.
Lievens,F., & Chapman, D. (2010).Recruitment and selection.The SAGEhandbook of human resource management, 135-154.
Macan,T. (2009). The employment interview: A review of current studies anddirections for future research. Human Resource Management Review,19(3), 203-218.
Mahoney,J. T. (1995). The management of resources and the resource ofmanagement.Journal of business research, 33(2), 91-101.
Matamala,A. (2014). Assessing Organizational Image: Triangulation AcrossDifferent Applicant Perceptions, Website, and Facebook Features.
Wilkinson,A. (Ed.). (2009). The SAGE handbook of human resource management.SAGEPublications.