Literature Review





Theliterature review provides an incisive overview of the ten academicsources earlier discussed in the annotation. The topic of discussionis human resources management in different sectors with the core goalof providing a multiplicity of professional and academic perspectivesof the authors on the subject. Through the literature review, thereader will explore the diversity of human resource managementpractices that authors discuss in different literature. On completionof the incisive literature review, the conclusion summarizes theassertions of the authors in the sources with a subsequentrecommendation on what future research should entail. Therecommendation also directs the reader to the specific areas in humanresource management that require further research as a result factorssuch as absence of academic literature, limited empirical research,and unexploited information in regard to enhancing continuousdiscourse on the dynamics of human resource management.

Therole of effective human resource management in any organization is tocreate working conditions that maximize the potential and skills ofthe employees. Hence, this literature review borders on the vitalityof using different human resource approaches to reach the samedesired end of improved organizational performance for differentbusiness environments. The observations, assertions, and academic orprofessional positions of authors fundamentally create a guide onwhat should constitute future research. The academic sources alsoenhance the position of the final research paper on human resourcesmanagement. Although the literature review only discusses tenacademic sources, which include books and journals, there are othersources whose authors provide different perspectives from any of theauthors in these sources. The choice of sources reflects themultifaceted styles of human resource management in differentorganizations in the same industry and different industries as well.


Armitageet al, (2008) explored the concept of adaptive co-management as astrategy to improve the response of institutional frameworks to thepolicies that management adopts in different business circumstances. Although the authors focus is on the application of adaptiveco-management practices to enhance ways in which organizations andthe society can manage different ecosystems, they observe that theconcept is applicable in any business environment. Unlike the otherauthors in this discussion, Armitage et al, acknowledge that thereexist long-standing dilemmas between the environment and the societyon how best to manage the relationship. Considering thatenvironmental conservation is one of the most critical modern-dayethical concerns for most organizations, the assertions of theauthors vitally provide the direction of how the human resource canbe streamlined to ensure that most of these dilemmas are resolved.According to the authors, adaptive co-management enablesorganizationsto initiate experimental and experiential ways throughwhich employees can learn to respond to environmental dilemmas. In anorganizational perspective, they assert that the human resourcesdepartment should have a working template that guides all employeesespecially those involved in the production and distribution sectionsof the value chain on how to make environmentally plausibledecisions. The authors also address the socio-ecologicalcomplexities of the modern business and economic environment. Hence,they provide ways of improving the response capabilities of employeesbased on the core features of adaptive co-management. Through theirrecommendations, it becomes clear that the human resources have apivotal role to play in enhancing the ecological responses of theorganization in the modern context.

DianeArthur (2004), in his fourth edition on Fundamentalsof Human Resource Management, describesthe management of human resources management broad terms. Some of theissues that Diane offers in-depth discussions about are the functionof the human resource in the organization, legal issues affectinghuman management, the whole employment process, testing techniques,compensation, performance management, specific benefits ofadministration, employee relations, training and development, andmanagement systems pertaining to human resource management. Of allthe academic sources discussed, Diane provides the most directinformation on the subject of human resource management as whole.Through Diane’s research and experience on issues of human resourcemanagement, the reader understands fundamental issues such as staffratios, human resource budgets and operating costs, the effect of theorganization’s brand on human resources, and the legal issues inrespective industries. In general terms, Diane’s work embodies thefeatures of successful human resource practice whose core goal is toachieve the long-term missions and goals of the firm. As Dianeobserves, all the issues highlighted above, must have a positiveimpact on the growth of the organization in terms of revenuegeneration, enhancing organizational capabilities, and increasingproductivity.

GodefroyBeauvallet and Thomas Houy (2009) also provided a comprehensiveliterature review on lean management and the issues that constitutelean management practices. Beauvallet and Houy examine the positionof several authors on lean management and conclude that all thesources insist on shop floor management practices, knowledge sharingtraditions, and establishment of an operators control systems as thecornerstones of lean management. They use the Toyota productionsystem to illustrate how lean companies manage their human resources.Beauvallet and Houy further conclude that lean human resourcemanagement entails merging middle management with the company’ssupport services with all production processes rather than leave themto be divergent processes.

Hengsky(2013) shares the assertions of the Gary Dessler, a celebrated authoron issues of human resource management. The main issues the Hengskyidentifies among many of Dessler’s extensive research and findingson human resource management are equal opportunity and the law. Inessence, Hengsky approaches the subject in a similar manner as DianeArthur except that most of his contributions are simply a reiterationof Dessler’s writings about ways that organizations an enhanceequal opportunity for both existing and prospective employees.Hengsky analyzes some of the legal environment about the issue ofequal opportunity. One of the issues that he highlights is theSupreme Court case of Albemarle Paper Company vs. Moody. Hengskyunderscores the importance of the ruling in the hiring process offirms because it laid out a specific test on how organizations needscreen prospective employees. Hence, reiterates that as way to complywith this legal standard, organizations must ensure that theydisclose the expected performance standards during recruitments, usefederal validation procedures, provide the duties andresponsibilities, and meet all the obligations set out in theAmericans with Disabilities Act. Although Hensky’s contributionsto the subject echo the works of Dessler, they vitally simplify themfor a better understanding by industries and research.

Hollenbeck,Gerhart &amp Wright (2004) have different insights on how theorganization can enhance the contribution of the human resource tothe overall performance. They observe that decisions concerning thecomposition of the human resource have a huge impact on outcomes suchas profitability, customer satisfaction, the quality of products, andcost efficiency. They, therefore, conclude that an effective humanresource strategy must aim toward perfection these aspects becausethey are the measures of organizational performance. Thus, theorganization’s priority should be to have the right people in eachdepartment. According to Hollenbeck, Gerhart, and Wright, the rightpeople are those with the right attitude, relevant skills, andcompetency to meet market demands.

Accordingto Macan (2009), interviews continue to be the most used approach tohire employees. Macan also notes that prospective employees considerinterviews as a fair way to assess the employability of applicants. Unlike the authors discussed above, Macan is specifically addressesinterviews as vital recruiting tool. Other authors chose to explorethe entire human resource management issues through variousperspectives. Macan identifies the prediction capabilities ofstructured interviews, the specific measurements that interviewstarget, and the applicant and interviews aspects that are likely toaffect the interview process as thethree main issues that havescholars have paid a lot of attention in research. Thus, humanresource practitioners rely on research about the three issues tomake key human resource decisions. Macan recommends that the threeother issues that need in-depth research are a common model ofstructuring interviews, specific constructs that a conventionalinterview would measure, and crafting consistent labeling, terms, andmeasurements.

Accordingto Matamala (2014, the organization’s image determine the employeeswho aspire to work in it. Matamala decided to look at theorganization’s image from the perspective of prospective employees.He asserts that an organization can create a quality human resourceby communicating its image to the prospective employees throughdigital platforms such as social media and webpages. Recruitmentprocesses for the organizations must shift from the traditionalmethods to modern electronic methods that allow potential recruits toknow more about the organization. In other words, Matamala proposesthat digital platforms should become the primary means ofcommunication rather than a secondary one because they can reach awide spectrum of people. This way, the organization will have accessto diverse talent that would want to be associated with a positiveorganizational image because of the immense awareness created throughdigital media.

Mahoney(1995) explains a resource-based approach of improving theperformance of the organization. Although Mahoney made views in the1990s, they still make utmost sense in the modern context. The humanresource is part of an organization’s heterogeneity that it cantake advantage of to create more economic rent hence, Mahoneysuggests that it is not excluded from as one the vital sources of itsbreakthrough. In Mahoney’s words the human resource is also partof the much-needed resource accumulation and organizationalcapabilities that create a competitive advantage in whicheverindustry it operates.

Wilkinson(2009)mentions almost all the aspects that the rest of the authorsdiscuss, but there is one aspect that sets him out of the rest:managing the voice of employees in the organization. None of theauthors mentioned how the organization can deal with dissent onseveral issues such as management decision, work conditions, and pay. Considering that these issues directly affect employees, Wilkinsontakes a vital position that adds value to this research paper.According to Wilkinson, neither employers nor employees want theorganization to under-perform because that would have direct effectson profits and subsequently lead to loss of jobs. Thus, for theorganization to manage the voice of employees, it needs todistinguish and be aware of the influence of employee relationsdecisions compared with other cooperate level decisions (Wilkinson,2009).


Allthe authors agree on one vital aspect: the human resource essentiallydefines the capabilities of the organization. All processes in theorganization depend on the quality of its employees and also thevalue it derives from them. The only differences that arise amongthe authors are the perspectives they choose to approach the subject.While some such as Armitrage et al, Beauvallet and Houy, Mahoney andother choose to approach the subject in general, Macan and Matamalause a more specific approach by pinpointing a specific aspect ofhuman resource management such as recruitment and organizationalimage. Literature reviews are vital sources of research insights andliterature on the subject therefore, they provide the basis uponwhich research fills information gaps about human resourcesmanagement.


Thisresearch comes at a time when there is continuous need for furtherresearch on the issue of human resources management. There severalissues by the authors above. Hence, they are the basis of therecommendations on the issues that future research need to focus on. Future research needs to address the 21stcentury trends and emerging issues in human resource management thatthe authors did not talk about such as:

  1. The impact of aggregate human resource practices on the economy: There is less research in the impact of several economic aspects such as interest rates, inflation, exchange rates etc. on human resource issues such as hiring, strategies, and budgetary allocations.

  2. Inter-firm and inter-industry competition for a skilled workforce: These aspects have an impact on immigration policies, geographical mobility of labor, employer branding, and benefits strategies. However, few authors have written research papers on this trend.

  3. The influence of advancements in information, communications technology: Although there is immense research on ICT and business, the relative availability of research material specifically targeting human resource management is limited. Furthermore, the topic still needs in-depth research because it is technology is progressive in nature.

  4. Demographic changes: The changes in demographics are affected by factors such as aging and immigration. Future research needs to address how these changes are likely to impact human resource management.


Armitage,D. R., Plummer, R., Berkes, F., Arthur, R. I., Charles, A. T.,Davidson-Hunt, I. J., …&ampWollenberg, E. K. (2008). Adaptiveco-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecologyand the Environment, 7(2), 95-102.

Arthur,D. (2004). Fundamentals of human resources management.AMACOM DivAmerican Mgmt Assn.

Beauvallet,G., &amp Houy, T. (2009). Research on HRM and lean management: aliterature survey. International Journal of Human ResourcesDevelopment and Management, 10(1), 14-33.

Hengky,S. H. (2013). Fundamentals of human resource management. Journal ofHuman Resources Management and Labor Studies, 1(2), 39-40.

Hollenbeck,J. R., Gerhart, B., &amp Wright, P. M. (2004).Fundamentals of humanresource management (Vol. 2).McGraw-Hill.

Lievens,F., &amp Chapman, D. (2010).Recruitment and selection.The SAGEhandbook of human resource management, 135-154.

Macan,T. (2009). The employment interview: A review of current studies anddirections for future research. Human Resource Management Review,19(3), 203-218.

Mahoney,J. T. (1995). The management of resources and the resource ofmanagement.Journal of business research, 33(2), 91-101.

Matamala,A. (2014). Assessing Organizational Image: Triangulation AcrossDifferent Applicant Perceptions, Website, and Facebook Features.

Wilkinson,A. (Ed.). (2009). The SAGE handbook of human resource management.SAGEPublications.

Literature Review




NURS-6052N-11,Essentof Evidence-Based Pract.2015

July1, 2015


Inthe recent past, researchers have focused on investigation of diversepediatric conditions that affect young patients. Variousinvestigators have identified effective communication as the mainproblem. Adult patients are easy to treat because they can discusstheir health challenges with a nurse, but most children can rarelyexplain the challenges they are experiencing to health careprofessionals. Subsequently, this essay will use qualitative studiesto argue that it is easier for nurses to diagnose and prescribesuitable medication for adult patients than young individuals becausethe former can describe their health issues. On the contrary,pediatric nurses need to conduct elaborate tests to understand thehealth problem of the young patients due to their inability toexpress themselves clearly.


Withpediatric patients, what is the impact of healthcare providercommunication with parents of pediatric patients on diagnosisaccuracy, compared to healthcare provider communication withpediatric patients alone?

CurrentState of Knowledge

Oneof the objectives of this literature review is evaluation whetherprovision of training on nurse-pediatric communication with minors improve treatment and diagnosticservice when taking in the patients. Doughty,Williams, Brigham, and Seashore (2010) observed that pediatrics whoenroll with the CRTP program have more efficient diagnosticcapability when admitting minors in health care facilities than theircolleagues who never undergo further training apart from the regularmedical school preparation. Crossley and Davies (2005) proposed thatpediatricians have a better chance of diagnosing or understanding thehealth statuses of minors when they learn about their health directlyfrom their guardians. Nonetheless, the pediatric nurses also assertthat the strategy has its own challenges since there is littleresearch on the field concerning the best strategies that pediatrictherapists can draw the information from the parents withoutoffending or causing panic. Consequently, the nurses shouldemphasize on using evidence-based diagnosis for major deduction of achild’s illness. Parents should act as a secondary source ofinformation to avoid causing unnecessary panic.

Doughtyet al. (2010) argued that provision of special communication trainingto pediatrician nurses significantly enhanced the leadership capacityas well as the diagnosis capacity. The results are credible becausethe authors used qualitative data gathered from pediatricians whohave completed the Chief Resident Training Program (CRTP) from year1988 to 2003. The resource asserts that the primary sectors that thetraining helped the professionals to improve drastically includeconsciousness of personality traits, sending and receiving feedback,relationship with others and the capacity control conflict at thework environment. Overall, the resource shows apparent CRTP effect onthe program’s participants on both short and long-term basis.

Crossleyand Davies (2005) concluded that parents are crucial sources ofknowledge for a pediatrician. Parents often have detailed healthinformation regarding their children. As a result, therapists candiagnose children faster and more accurately when they collaboratewith the parents. Nonetheless, there lacks efficient methods forevaluating the quality and intricacy of the approach that makes itquite complicated to apply the method effectively. The resource isdedicated on determining the critical constituents of the childrenconsultation. In order to come up with accurate data, the sourceapplies content analysis of pertinent published as well asunpublished content. The credibility of the findings is high becausethe authors are both research pediatricians. In conclusion, theresearch finds that acquiring information from parents lead to fasterand more convenient diagnosis of the health status of their youngones. However, the authors argue that an improved approach isnecessary for pediatricians to learn about the minors’ medicalcondition from their folks.

Harrington,Norling, Witte, Taylor, and Andrews (2007) evaluated the nurse-parenttraining program in communication skills intended to enhanceinformation sharing concerning medical prescription to the youngones. The implication of future research on the study indicates thatparents have a better comprehension of the health statuses of theirchildren. Subsequently, they can simplify diagnosis of the conditionof minors when they are actively involved in their treatment process.Nevertheless, nurses should still use the diagnosis information fromparents as a secondary source because they are non-professionals.They need to rely on their skills to deduce the specific diseaseaffecting a child.

Kreps(2015) noted that communication is imperative in the health careindustry, especially to the pediatric nurses. Nonetheless, there areinadequate valuable sources that offer training to the pediatricprofessionals on application evidence-based treatment technique.Consequently, pediatric nurses tend to apply the same skills that areused with adult patients. According to the author, nurses rarelycommunicate with parents during hospitalization of the childrenbecause the decision is absolutely made by a pediatric therapistwhile the nurses are mainly required to implement the strategies thedoctor finds after an analysis.

Although Purvis (2015) believed that nurse -patient communication is valuable when dealing with adults, as thesick can inform the therapists the health problem, he argued that itadds little value in the diagnosis process of pediatric cases sincechildren have little information about the diseases they suffer. Consequently, they lack the capacity to provide comprehensive andreliable information that nurses can analyze to identify the cause ofa potential disease. In such cases, health care professionals have torely on evidence-based skills during treatment and diagnosis process.

Inconsistenciesin the Research

Overall,the sources indicate that communication improves diagnosis andtreatment services of pediatrics. Nevertheless, Kreps (2015) rejectedthe argument that good nurse-patient relationship is adequate onitself to achieve comprehensive diagnosis. Instead, he argued that apowerful health promotion campaign is critical to help vulnerablepeople to specific illnesses avoid predisposing factors. Theinconsistency arose in that the author believed thatpatient-therapist communication is not adequate without ahealth-oriented promotional program. On the contrary, Polit and Beck(2008) contended that in-depth research on individual cases ispreferred to evidence-based in nursing because nurses often basetheir decisions on general symptoms that may overlap for differentconditions. Subsequently, the resource recommends that nurses shouldconduct independent investigation for particular patients instead ofdepending on their verbal report. Crossley and Davies (2005) alsoidentify nurse-parent communication as crucial, but other sourcesdisagree with the findings because parents are non-professionalswhose findings cannot be used in the diagnosis process. Theirinformation can only complement the specialists’ findings.


Theresearch finds that provision of advanced nurse-parent communicationtraining to pediatric nurses is a sound idea as the knowledge helpsto confirm the pediatric diagnoses therapists make. As such, thenurses use the sickness information from parents as a secondarysource of diagnosis since they base the primary diagnoses on specificsymptoms’ pattern. However, communication training helps the nursesto deliver high quality and competitive leadership, as well as relateprofessionally with both parents and the ailing children. As aresult, I disagree with the premise that efficient nurse-parent andnurse-child communication accelerates the diagnosis process. Thepediatric nurses do not use the symptoms the patients describe todetermine the disease they could be suffering. Instead, pediatricnurses use their toolkit analysis methods to determine specificissues affecting the patients and then collaborate their findingswith the reports from the children as well as parents’observations. Young patients have little understanding of theconditions they suffer. As such, their information is unreliablecompared to the adult who can discuss in-depth health problemstherefore, evidence-based research is slightly a challenge forpediatric nurses. The preliminary conclusions find that healthcareprovider communication with parents of pediatric patients enhancesdiagnosis accuracy, compared to healthcare provider communicationwith pediatric patients alone. However, both sources are secondary toEBP approach.


Theliterature review found that evidence-based training is essential forassisting pediatric nurses to admit sick children. The professionalscan use analyses methods to help them understand the conditionaffecting certain children better. Therefore, acquisition of medicalinformation from the parents acts as a secondary source of data thatfacilitates more accurate understanding of the sickness. The parentskeep comprehensive records of both pre-existing and recentopportunistic diseases that complement the findings pediatric nursesacquire through evidence-based method.

Referencessummary table:


Type of resource



Crossley, J. &amp Davies, H. (2005). Doctors` consultations with children and their parents: A model of competencies, outcomes and confounding influences. Medical Education, 39(8):807-19.

Doughty, R.A., Williams, P.D., Brigham, T.P. &amp Seashore, S. (2010). Experiential leadership training for pediatric chief residents: Impact on individuals and organizations. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 300-306.


Information on the role of guardians towards diagnosis of the health statuses of their children

Parents can help nurses to diagnose the conditions their children are suffering from through comprehensive description of the illness symptoms.

Harrington, N.G, Norling, G.R, Witte, F.M, Taylor, J. &amp Andrews, J.E. (2007). The Effects of Communication Skills Training on Pediatricians’ and Parents’ Communication During “Sick Child” Visits. Health Communication, 21(2):105-114


The role of parents communication with nurses in child diagnosis process

Parents understand the symptoms of their children well, therefore, their information enhances the accuracy of the nurse to identify the condition affecting their children.

Kreps, G.L (2015). Health communication inquiry and health promotion: A State of the Art Review. Journal of Nature and Science, 1(2):e35.


Pediatric nurses do not necessarily communicate with parents of the sick children because physicians can diagnose the children using evidence-based techniques

Although communication with pediatric nurses enhances child diagnosis, the absolute decision depends on evidence-based tools that pediatric therapists apply

Polit, D. F., &amp Beck, C. T. (2008).Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.


In-depth research can substitute evidence-based research

Pediatric nurses can rely on evidence-based research to identify the health issue with young patients in case they lack a reliable source of information

Purvis, J.M. (2015). The challenge of communicating with pediatric patients. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


Nurse-patient communication is valuable when dealing with adults than children

Nurse-patient communication is almost never applicable when dealing with young patients because they lack the essential skills for describing the ailments affecting them.


Crossley,J. &amp Davies, H. (2005). Doctors` consultations with children andtheir parents: A model of competencies, outcomes and confoundinginfluences. MedicalEducation, 39(8):807-19.

Doughty,R.A., Williams, P.D., Brigham, T.P. &amp Seashore, S. (2010).Experiential leadership training for pediatric chief residents:Impact on individuals and organizations. Journalof Graduate Medical Education,300-306.

Harrington,N.G, Norling, G.R, Witte, F.M, Taylor, J. &amp Andrews, J.E. (2007).The Effects of Communication Skills Training on Pediatricians’ andParents’ Communication During “Sick Child” Visits. HealthCommunication,21(2):105-114

Kreps,G.L (2015). Health communication inquiry and health promotion: AState of the Art Review. Journalof Nature and Science, 1(2):e35.

Polit,D. F., &amp Beck, C. T. (2008).Nursingresearch: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice.Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

Purvis,J.M. (2015). The challenge of communicating with pediatric patients.TheAmericanAcademyof Orthopaedic Surgeons.