Minorities That Graduating From Four-Year University versus Historical

MINORITIES THAT GRADUATING FROM FOUR-YEAR UNIVERSITY VERSUS HISTORICAL BLACK COLLEGES IN DEBT WITH NO FINANCIAL BACKGROUND. FROM THE PAST FIVE YEARS 10

MinoritiesThat Graduating From Four-Year University versus Historical BlackColleges in Debt with No Financial Background from the Past FiveYears

InstitutionAffiliation

Franke,R., Hurtado, S., Pryor, J. H., &amp Tran, S. (2011). Completingcollege: Assessing graduation rates at four-year institutions.Higher Education Research Institute, Graduation School of Education &ampInformation Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.

Frankeet al. (2011) states that completing college degree is held in highesteem in the American society and is often used to gauge the qualityof an institution. However, regardless of that fact, only 27.4% ofthe adult American population have the degree. Furthermore there arewider disparities in the attainment of the degree along gender andethnicity lines. Franke et al (2011) indicates that among theminority group (African American), only 19% of the population agedbetween 25 and 29 years have a college degree. This is much lowercompared to 37% of the white Americans in the same group. However,compared to some times back, the number of African Americansattaining a college degree is increasing. Further, more women havebeen observed to attain this level of education than their malecounterparts. This is a reverse of what used to happen before.

HistoricallyBlack Colleges and Universities (HBCU) are very instrumental inboosting the number of African American students graduating fromfour-year learning institutions. According to Franke et al. (2011),there are many students graduating from these institutions thanpredicted earlier. HBCUs have varying financial background with somebeing financially stable while others struggling to keep up theirservices. It has been observed that those that are strugglingfinancially produce lower numbers of students graduating after fouryears.

Redd,K. E. (1998). Historically Black colleges and universities: Making acomeback. Newdirections for higher education,1998(102),33-43.

Redd(1998) states that HBCUs have come a long way to reach where they aretoday. They make great contributions to the US society in as far asdiversity is concerned. They have continued to open doors ofopportunities to many African Americans. Despite being discriminatedagainst and being underfunded, they have managed to do a great job.In the period between 1976 and 1994, Redd (1998) found out thatenrolment into HBCUs increased a lot, but was mostly because of anincrease in the enrolment rate of white students. Additionally,during that period, females got enrolled more than men. The increasedenrolment was followed by a slight increase in the graduation rate, atrend that has been maintained to date. The low financial positioncoupled with small sizes of these institutions makes them to supportsmall numbers of students. Despite that, they are responsible for ahigher number of college degree recipients among the African Americanstudent population. The US has 3688 accredited post-secondarylearning institutions of which HBCUs make only 3%. Most of the HBCUsare also underfunded and operate in debts. Since institutionalquality is measured by the rate of graduation of total studentsenrolled, most HBCUs are of low quality. The graduation rate fromfour-year colleges is much lower, but steadily on the rise.

Pool,R. W. (2012). Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: ABest Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges.

Acollege degree has replaced a high school diploma in measuringeconomic self-sufficiency and responsible citizenship in the Americansociety. As such, many people are striving to attain the degree sothat they can reap the benefits that come with it. The landmark caseof 1954 between Brown and Board of Education led to an introductionof policies that made HBCUs receive more recognition and support fromstate and federal government. However, despite of that, AfricanAmericans still struggle to get an education beyond high schooldiploma. Gaps in college graduation rates are important signifiers ofthe struggle. The gap is even observed to increase, something thathas made institutions to exercise aggressive recruitment campaigns,offer substantial discounts and scholarships, and advancesophisticated retention strategies. All the same, the number ofAfrican Americans graduating from four-year colleges stills lags byfar behind that of their white counterparts. Compared to 61%graduation rate of white students enrolling into four-year collegesin first year, the rate for African American students is only at 39%.Although HBCUs are trying really hard to graduate their students,they are still much behind to filling the graduation gap. HBCUs arehaving a hard time covering the gap because of lack of a stablefinancial background and support from state and federal government.Statistics show that 60% of white students graduated from four-yearcolleges compared to only 40% of African Americans.

Gasman,M. (2010). Comprehensive funding approaches for historically Blackcolleges and universities. In HBCUsymposium: Setting the agenda for Historically Black Colleges andUniversities, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC.

HBCUshave been attracting the attention of many presidents given thediscrimination they have been facing. The need to fund theseinstitutions (many of which are financially deprived) began manyyears ago, but one of the most profound effort was made by PresidentCarter in 1980 through and executive order. Another such effort wasmade by congress through policy reform as Title III part B. Sincethen many public and private funds have been directed at HBCUs in aneffort to make them more efficient. Most of these institutions arepoorly funded to a point that they are unable to perform theirprimary duty of educating the African Americans. Reports from theWhite House have indicated that most of what goes on in theseinstitutions remains unknown to the public. As such, they are beingcalled upon to protect and promote their image. The White House hasrecognized the efforts of some of these institutions in helping toboost the literacy level of African Americans in the society. Theyare responsible for increasing the graduation rates of this studentpopulation.

Gasman,M. (2013). The changing face of historically Black colleges anduniversities. Centerfor Minority Serving Institutions, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia.

HBCUsare the sole learning institutions in the US that were specificallymeant to educate African American students. They originated duringthe times of the Civil War and are persistent up to this day. Theirtotal number currently stands at 105 and they enroll 11% of AfricanAmerican students. Their number only makes up 3% of the total numberof colleges and universities in the US. Even at such a numericaldisadvantage, these institutions are still doing a great job ineducating the African American student population. HBCUs are becomingmore diverse in the students they enroll, but African Americanstudents still dominate. In the 50s, their populations were made upof nearly 100% African American students. In the 80s, that hadalready changed and African American students only represented 80% ofthe whole population. Because HBCUs used not to have sufficient fundsto carry out their operations, the graduation rate for AfricanAmerican students from four-year colleges remained very low. That ishowever changing as more attention and funds are directed at them. Itis only those that are in great debts that still fail to producehigher graduation rates in the African American student population.

TenStrategic Points

  1. Topic

Minoritiesthat graduating from four-year University versus historical blackcolleges in debt with no financial background

  1. Literature review

Thefollowing section reviews literature sources and previous studiesconducted in the area of study. It discusses published sources aswell as studies, making an in-depth analysis of the findings reportedby various findings and comparing the studies to each other.

  1. Problem statement

AfricanAmerican students have always had problems with completing theirstudies in learning institutions compared to white students. HBCUswere introduced to specifically help improve their performance butbecause of lack of finances, they are having difficulties inachieving this goal. This essay looks at graduation rates of blacksand financial hardships of HBCUs.

  1. Sample and location

Participantsin the study will be selected using purposeful sampling. Thisinvolves selecting research participants according to the researchthe objectives, aims as well as requirements. Holloway and Wheeler(2010) are of the view that a number of factors come into play whendeciding the number of participants to utilize in any quantitativestudy. These factors includethe type and nature of researchquestions, the number of researchers in the study as well asavailability of the necessary resources. Schneider et al., (2007)argues that the quality of data should be considered when determiningthe number of participants that should be involved in a study.

  1. Research questions

  1. What is the graduation rate of African American Students?

  2. Is the graduation of African American students from four-year colleges improving?

  3. What are financial constraints that HBCUs face and how are they being solved?

  4. How are the financial constraints affecting graduation rates of minorities?

  1. Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena

  1. Graduation rate of African American students is low

  2. Graduation rate for minorities has been improving

  3. Financial constraints of HBCUs are being solved publicly and privately.

  1. Methodology and design

Thefollowing section describes the research design and methods thatwould be used to collect data about the impact of background music onthe time spent on the internet. The section describes the researchstrategy and approach. Additionally, the selection of respondents andtheir ethical consideration in the selection and participation ishighlighted. Theresearch design of any given study describes the main approach that aresearcher utilizes to get the answers to their research questions(Parahoo, 2006).

  1. Purpose statement

Thispeace seeks to investigate the graduation rates for minorities in theUS. Further, it seeks to investigate how financially deprived HBCUsare faring in the main goal of educating minorities.

  1. Data collection

Contentanalysis will be used to collect secondary data. It involvesreviewing various literature sources in order to collect data thatwill be used to answer the identified research questions. It involvesstudying the content of various relevant literatures and empiricaldocumentation in a bid to find information. Content analysis is awidely used qualitative research method that largely involves drawingout and interpreting meaning from the context of both text andnumerical data (Hsieh &amp Shannon, 2005). In this study, the use ofcontent analysis as the main method of data collection will generallyinvolve reviewing literature sources such as books, journals,official reports and websites in order to collect data that discusshow background music impacts internet usage.

  1. Data analysis

Aquantitative framework would be utilized in data analysis. This isbecauseit makes it possible for resultsfrom a sample to be generalized in order to find out patterns as wellas present facts about a population and the phenomenon. Primary datacollected from various financial institutions will be confidentiallyanalyzed using the SPSS software.

References

Broom,A. 2006. Ethical issues in social research. Complementarytherapies in medicine,14(2), pp.151–156.

Franke,R., Hurtado, S., Pryor, J. H., &amp Tran, S. (2011). Completingcollege: Assessing graduation rates at four-year institutions.Higher Education Research Institute, Graduation School of Education &ampInformation Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.

Gasman,M. (2010). Comprehensive funding approaches for historically Blackcolleges and universities. In HBCUsymposium: Setting the agenda for Historically Black Colleges andUniversities, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC.

Gasman,M. (2013). The changing face of historically Black colleges anduniversities. Centerfor Minority Serving Institutions, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia.

Hsieh,H. and Shannon, S 2005). Three approaches to qualitative contentanalysis. Qualitativehealth research,15(9), pp.1277–1288.

Holloway,I., Wheeler, S. &amp Holloway, I. 2010.Qualitativeresearch in nursing and healthcare.Chichester,West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

Parahoo,K. 2006. Nursingresearch.Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Pool,R. W. (2012). Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: ABest Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges.

Redd,K. E. (1998). Historically Black colleges and universities: Making acomeback. Newdirections for higher education,1998(102),33-43.

Schneider,Z., Whitehead, D., Elliott, D., Lobiondo-Wood, G., &amp Haber, J2007.Nursing&amp Midwifery Research Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-basedPractice.3rdEds. Australia: Elsevier.