PublicHealth and its determinants
PublicHealth and its Determinants
Publichealth has three main functions that include assessment, policydevelopment and assurance. Policy development refers to theinvolvement of state organs to create laws that promote health.Assurance refers to the availability of health services to thepopulation without failure. Assessment involves the regularcollection of data regarding a disease to come up with observablepatterns. These patterns can be helpful in making predictions andtherefore putting in place control and preventive mechanisms for thediseases (Nies & McEwen, 2015). The assessment also involveslooking the community from the approach of its ability to protectitself through the available resources. It identifies the availablegap in the community.
Assessmentis applicable surveillance, which is one of the key public healthinterventions. It involves a regular follow-up of an identifieddisease in the community and identifies any signs of its return ornew infections. The move helps to keep infections at bay, and itreduces the number of people who contract diseases because of itsearly identification. It involves assessing the condition of theuninfected groups as well as the conditions in the environment thatcould facilitate the spread of a disease (Nies & McEwen, 2015).
Surveillanceis mainly population based. Public health officials identify a targetpopulation and conduct an assessment of the most vulnerable groups interms of health (Nies & McEwen, 2015). As mentioned before, oneof the core functions of public health is assessing an environment inthe context of the health of individuals living there. In theassessment, the results of the surveillance are clear list of themost vulnerable groups, the available resources and the ability ofthe population to cope.
Thereare various factors that make one people healthy and others ill. Thephysical and mental well-being is a product of an array of factorsthat exist in the environment. The factors include governmentpolicies on health, social environment, genetical factors and theavailability and quality of health services. All the factors worktogether for the comprehensive well-being of an individual. When onefails, a part of an individual’s health becomes affectednegatively.
Thesocial factor is an important aspect in the above list. Healthprofessionals regard it as a stronghold determinant f health since itforms the daily life of people. Unlike other factors lie policies andhealth services that may require the intervention of the federal orthe national government, social factors revolve around the dailyengagements of people. The social and physical environment has adefinition of the environment in which people are born, grow, play,work and age. It surrounds the throughout their lifetime (HealthyPeople 2020). If it t is not suitable for human habitation, it aythe source of infirmities that may lead to death.
Thesocial determinants of health include the economic status, theinfluence of the mass media, literacy levels, attitude towards healthseeking, cultural practices, and social support systems among others.The physical elements include physical barriers t health serviceslike bad roads, the working conditions in various occupations, andthe living environment among others. Their importance in publichealth is paramount because e they directly affect the life of anindividual in their daily tasks (Healthy People 2020). The economicconditions affect the access to quality care. High literacy levelsare directly proportional to improved health due to the knowledgethat people have. Human beings cannot also do without an occupationor shelter. The conditions of these environments determine theirhealth status. Conclusively, the social approach to health has a lotof weights since it includes a comprehensive view of people’s dailylife.
HealthyPeople 2020. (2015). Determinantsof Disease.Retrieved fromhttp://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health
Nies,M. A., & McEwen, M. (2015). Community/PublicHealth Nursing: Promoting the Health of Populations (6th ed.).Elsevier: St. Louis.