refers to the mimicking of real world situations using models tounderstand the underlying mechanisms through which the real worldsituations work. is usually undertaken for situations inwhich experimenting with the real world situation is either toodangerous, very expensive or simply impossible. An example of a casewhere simulation is applied is in the training of pilots. Developmentof models for simulation has become widely applicable in statisticalsoftware like excel. Just like any other statistical software, excelproduces efficient models but this also comes with a set ofchallenges.

Difficultyin using Excel

Themost challenging part in setting up a simulation in Microsoft Excel,for me, is the very foundation of the entire process: randomnumber generation.The essence of simulation is to create models capable of mimickingthe real world scenario and in order to do this effectively, there isneed to undertake a rigorous random number generation (Evans &ampOlson, 1998). More aptly, the difficulty lies in using the RANDfunction to generate values that are uniformly distributed lyingbetween 0 and 1 i.e. U (0, 1). In most circumstances, using the randfunction results in inconsistent calculations of the expected randomnumbers every time the function is entered into different columns.The spiral effect of all these problems is that using the RANDfunction in circumstances where it results in inconsistent outcomesmakes it difficult to determine the “heads” and the “tails”.Moreover, using the RAND function is particularly difficult for MonteCarlo simulation (Gedam &amp Beadudet, 2000). To this end, certainresources come in handy as crucial go-bys. Certain websites have beendeveloped to specifically address such challenges arising from theuse of this software like the other online user-support websites. Moreover, peers and tutorsare as much useful resources other than the relevant books on excelversions and computer programming.


Ingeneral, however, simulation has gained wide usage owing to the factthat it enables imitation of real world situations thus enablingcomprehension of real world scenarios at a relatively lower cost andrisk. The process is particularly important because simulationinvolves a model that represents the fundamental characteristics(functions or behavior) of the chosen abstract system (Rubinstein &ampKroese, 2011). is widely used in many disciplinesincluding video games, education, pilot training, safety engineering,and many other fields of technology. is as much applied inthe scientific modeling of natural and human systems to comprehendtheir working. is typically used in circumstances in whichthe real systems cannot be applicable because it may not be ethicallyacceptable, it is not readily available or it is very risky.Moreover, simulation is not only used to imitate real systems but canbe used to assess alternative impacts of hitherto real systems. Insimulation, there are a few issues that usually arise which involvehaving sound information concerning the selected abstract system (itscharacteristics), assumptions made about the constructed model andthe ultimate validity of the simulation results.


Flightsimulation is one field that has made the best application of thiswhole concept for many years. In this field, Flight Training Devices (FSTD) are used in to train pilots withoutnecessarily taking off. This kind of training involves training ofair maneuvers that are typically very risky on air. This makes itpossible for the pilot trainee to comprehend the concepts while atthe same time reducing the risks involved. More interesting is thefact that flight simulation goes over and above training to visualizeinstrument failures, hydraulic system malfunctions, and even flightcontrol failures without risking lives. This phenomenon is not onlyrisk-reducing to the students but also enables the instructors tocondition a good concentration for the students to learn (Khan &ampRossi, 2012). Additionally, flight simulation provides aneconomically desirable and feasible method of training relative toexperimenting with the actual aircraft. It is also possible to buildflight simulators that can be used by individuals at the comfort oftheir homes and this shows the extent to which light simulation hasgained wide applicability. Today, there are several devices that areused in flight simulation most of which involve the Cockpitprocedures, which enable performance of tasks such as processingemergency checklists.


Evans,J. R., &amp Olson, D. L. (1998). Introductionto simulation and risk analysis.Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Gedam,S. G., &amp Beaudet, S. T. (2000). Monte carlo simulation usingexcel (r) spreadsheet for predicting reliability of a complex system.In Reliabilityand Maintainability Symposium, 2000. Proceedings. Annual(pp. 188-193). IEEE.

Khan,M. J., Rossi, M., Aji, C., &amp Heath, B. (2012, March). TheDevelopment and Implementation of a Flight BasedEnvironment for Teaching Math &amp Science. In Societyfor Information Technology &amp Teacher Education InternationalConference(Vol. 2012, No. 1, pp. 2558-2562).

Rubinstein,R. Y., &amp Kroese, D. P. (2011). and the Monte Carlo method(Vol. 707). John Wiley &amp Sons.