Student`s name

DictionaryResearch

Identifythe Title, Edition, and Date of Publication of Your Dictionary:

  1. Meanings.&nbspWhat determines the order of listings of the different senses that your dictionary presents for a given word? – The alphabetical order of the headword.

Wheredid you locate this information in your dictionary? – At theintroduction section.

  1. Abbreviations. Where does your dictionary explain the abbreviations that it uses? In the introduction part

Giveyour dictionary’s explanation for each of the bold abbreviationsfollowing these entries:

    1. run, tr.: translation or translating

    2. no how, Non-Standard: word that does not conform to vocabulary, pronunciation or grammar among other English functions.

    3. Love, Idiom: a meaning that a certain combination of words gives and it cannot be deduced from the individual words that make it. Eg. Fall in love – to have passionate feelings towards another person.

    4. ow, Interj.: a short form for interjection, which is a an exclamation word that helps to express the sentiment of a speaker.

  1. Pronunciation.&nbspUsing your dictionary, type out, by syllable, each of the words listed below. Insert accent marks (’) where they belong. Locate pronunciation tables or lists in your dictionary and determine the pronunciations for each word.&nbspWhen you have no access to a correct symbol to type in, just explain the symbol and pronunciation, best you can.

    1. schism: /ˈs(k)izəm/

    2. onomatopoeia: /ˌänəˌmadəˈpēə,ˌänəˌmädəˈpēə/

    3. chimera: /kīˈmirə,kəˈmirə/

    4. Insert (and be able to pronounce) the plural forms of the following words (Stevenson):

    5. index: Indices – /ˈindiˌsēz/

    6. datum: data – /ˈdadə,ˈdādə/

  1. Etymology.&nbspThe derivation, or origin, of a word often furnishes a literal meaning that helps us to remember the word. For each of the following words, give the source, the original word, and the original meaning.

Nefarious(adj):the word originated from the Latin word nefarius in 1600 century thatmeans “impious, wicked or abominable”. It combines two Latinwords ‘nefas’ (impiety, crime or wrong” and ‘ne’ – (not) +fas (lawful, right, divinely spoken), which is also associated withfari “that means to talk” (OxfordEnglish Dictionary).

Pseudonym(n.): introduced in English in 1828. It is partially derived fromthe French pseudonyme(adj.) and German pseudonym.However, the Greekpseudonymos that means having a bogus name is the oldest meaning ofthe word. Pseudes(pseudo) means “false” while onyma (Aeolic pronunciation foronoma which means “name”) (OxfordEnglish Dictionary).

Androgynous:originated from the Latin word “androgynus” in the 1620s. Theterm is an adjective that means a combination of male and female intoone or hermaphrodite or womanish man. Androsis a root name for the aner“male” + gyne which means “woman” (OxfordEnglish Dictionary).

  1. Special Labels. Sometimes terms (or certain meanings) have precautionary or explanatory labels, such as Archaic or Colloquial. What special usage label did you find for one meaning of each term below?

    1. chicken feed: an unimportant quantity of cash

    2. cool it: stop being so tense

    3. doodad: something that has not been specified

    4. highfalutin: pretentious or exaggerated

  1. Usage Notes. What Usage Note does your dictionary give following its definitions of the following words?

    1. flammable: flammable, inflammable, combustible

    2. irregardless: irrespective or without fail

    3. Man: when referring to male and adult human beings or masculine things associated with men

    4. Protagonist: The champion advocating for the right cause (often used in movies, novels and plays).

    5. Get: used when one is about to win, gain, earn or receive something

  1. Some dictionaries provide an enormous amount of information others are less generous. See how yours &quotstacks up&quot in the following section.

    1. Who was Beowulf? He is a hero from Geats Scandinavia who is described in an ancient English poem known by a similar title.

    1. What is Constantinople now called? – Istanbul

Whatis its original name? Byzantium

Whereis it located? Modern day Turkey

    1. Does your dictionary have a section on the History of the English Language? Yes it has a section before in the foreword section that describes the English history.

    1. What is the meaning of your first name? Not Applicable

    1. What is the weather symbol for a cold front?

    1. What is the astronomical symbol for a comet?

(Fletcher24)

    1. What is the mathematical symbol for infinity?

(Jones58)

References

OxfordEnglish Dictionary (7th ed). Oxford Publishers Limited, London, UK.2005. Print.

Stevenson,Angus. OxfordDictionary of English.New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Jones,Ryan. InternetSlang Dictionary: [an Authoritative Guide to Understanding InternetLingo].S.I.: NoSlang.com, 2006. Print.

Fletcher,Beverly. Tapworks:A Tap Dictionary and Reference Manual (2nded).Hightstown, N.J: Princeton Book Co, 2002. Print.

Student`s name

TheRelationship between Armed Conflict, Empire and Identity

Inthe Memoirsof Senegalese Soldiers,the author interviews and records the memories of the soldiers whoassert that they were forcefully recruited into the French Armybecause Senegal was one of its major African empires. Consequently,the recruitment denied them individuality since it was compulsory.“Many of the young men fled from their village [when the chefde cantoncame to take soldiers]. [But] they used to arrest their fathers ifthey did not come back” (Memoirs of Senegalese Soldiers 941). Thestrategy was efficient since the sons would feel obliged to join thearmy so that their fathers could be released from jail. On the otherhand, the Africans who served in the military were given specialhonor after they completed their service. Subsequently, parents gavethe names of their sons to the French Army representatives becausethey wanted them to acquire the respect for Senegalese families. Oneof the soldiers recounts recruitment into the French Army asessential because it boosted his personal confidence. For example,they could demand for good food from the white officers in case theywere not satisfied with the dishes they were served. “[So] whenDiagne came, if we said the food was not good, he called the officerstogether and asked them why” (Memoirs of Senegalese Soldiers 943). Such authority was significant to the African soldiers since theywere used to the absolute control of the white officers back at home.The recognition boosted their confidence significantly. Subsequently,the self-confidence other French officers accorded raised personalego and self-identity to the extent that individuals could fighttheir white colleagues when they felt disrespected. For example, oneof the interviewees recounts a case when he punched a French soldierbecause he refused to take to do “cheers” at the meal time(Memoirs of Senegalese Soldiers 943). On the same note, the warveterans earned their fellow Senegalese respect among the whiterulers. For instance, the civilians sought the assistance ofdecorated soldiers when they wanted to approach the colonists. Thewhites were obliged to treat even the black military with similarrespect to the white fighters. At another instance, respondentrecounts of the courage the war gave the black men. When they weretravelling back to Senegal from Bordeaux, a white man called anAfrican soldier a ‘sale negre’. In retaliation, the abusedsoldier punched him and the other soldiers joined in to beat the manuntil he apologized. Such a case was exceptional because prior tothe war, the whites were used to abusing and humiliating the Africanswithout retaliation (Memoirs of Senegalese Soldiers 944).

Unfortunately,most of them lost their identity after the recruitment. For example,some individuals were adopted by the French families while othersgave up their culture. “We were bound to follow the Frenchregulations and their way of thinking about all these things”(Memoirs of Senegalese Soldiers 942). Although France had establishedmany empires where they extracted the soldiers, they ensured the menrespected each other through implementation of French identity at thebattleground.

Inthe Wretchedof the Earth,the author contends that decolonization intends to alter the worldorder. Nevertheless, taking down an empire involves massive bloodshedas the superior nations refuse to let go of their empires. Heassociates empires with armed conflict because it is impossible torob people of their freedom, culture and resources without using someviolence. “You do not turn any society, however primitive it maybe, upside down with such a program if you have not decided from thevery beginning, to overcome all the obstacles you will come across inso doing” (Fanon 39). Each time an empire is established in aforeign land, it involves displacing the local people. As a result,the oppressed community will seek to defend itself, which is mainlythrough armed conflict. In return, imperialist use their massivewealth to acquire the loyalty of the contestants. This means that theforeigners use corrupt the conscience of the locals using wealth sothey can support the mission of the imperialists’ mission locally.Furthermore, the conflicts also arise in the empire because theforeigners expect the locals to give up their cultural values infavor of their traditional practices. “At times, Manichaeism goesto its logical conclusion and dehumanizes the native, or to speakplainly, it turns him into an animal” (Fanon 42). Although some ofthe values the foreigners attempt to introduce in the empires arevaluable to the people, it still meets resistance at the initialstages. For example, introduction of Christianity in communities thatalready have traditional myths and worship methods is quite achallenge because nobody is willing to give up his or her originalfaith. On the issue of identity, colonization introduces policiesthat emphasize on the unity of the locals. Since it eliminates thelocal discrimination basis such as language barriers throughintroduction of a common language for everyone, it may promote racialprofiling and classification of the society based on socioeconomicstatuses (Fanon 94). In the recent past, armed conflicts haveintensified in underdeveloped countries that are vulnerable tocolonialism since the leaders call their subjects to unite and fightthe foreign aggressors as well as protect their wealth from illegalexploitation (Fanon 95).

GilloPontecorvo`s Battleof Algiersmovie emphasizes the armed conflict theme association with empiredevelopment. The film is based on the 1950s uprising in the Algeriancapital where the locals declared war against the invading FrenchArmy. The African women plant bombs in French cafes to intimidate thecolonizers to quit the empire. The Africans form the NationalLiberation Front (FLN) that wages guerilla warfare on the colonists.In return, the French government sends paratroopers to lead thecounterinsurgency. The result is massive bloodshed as even childrenshoot the insurgents at point blank. Hassiba, Zohra and Djmilamastermind implantation of bombs in strategic places where they cankill the maximum civilians. On the other hand, the French militaryneutralizes the FLN warfare through torture and mass killing ofdemonstrators. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, Algeria wasdivided into distinct kingdoms. Each community had a chief, languageand culture that separated them. Fortunately, the colonists erodedthe backwards culture through assimilating the Africans into theircommunity. The practice gives the people new identity that unites theentire nation. Previous barriers such as tribe and language barrierare broken, thereby, allowing the locals to demand for independencein unity. The French wins the Battle of Algiers in the movie.Nonetheless, armed conflicts escalate in other area until the forcesgive in (Battle of Algiers). On the same note, the struggle forindependence in Algeria shapes the identity of the Algerianspositively. For example, the movie features a scene where twoAlgerian youths are secretly married in an Islamic ceremony that anFLN official presides. The officer declares to the couple, “oneday we`ll be able to have our weddings in the open&quot (Battle ofAlgiers). It seems Fanon is prediction is accurate even if theprediction was not long-lasting, the armed struggle made bothindividuals and societies “whole” through uniting them (Battle ofAlgiers).

RachidBouchareb`s Daysof Gloryis also relevant to the topic since it also deals with the Frenchrecruitment of the Africans into its troops. Approximately 130,000fighters are recruited so that they can help to shield the nationfrom the Nazis. Germany had established empires in both Europe andAfrica. Since France was its rival, it planned an attack that couldhave victorious if France did not move fast to strengthen itsmilitary. The issue of identity is addressed in the film throughportrayal of the black soldiers as unequal partners to their whitecounterparts. For example, the former soldiers have never receivedtheir pension compensation. However, the few fighters whocompensated were given amounts that are over ten times less thantheir white counterparts. The enrollment in the army is compulsory somany men were forced to abandon their comfortable culture to work assoldiers. By the end of the conflict, soldiers, such as Massaoud,want to change their identity to French citizens so that they couldstay there permanently. The latter French Army private falls in lovewith a white woman at Marsailles. On the same note, the film makes itapparent that countries that need to maintain an empire has to beprepared for an armed conflict since either the locals or foreignrivals could attack unexpectedly. The recruitment into the army alsomakes the black soldiers capable to demand their rights. When ontransit from Africa to France through a ship, Abdelkader, the Frenchprivate had to stop several fights between the black and whitesoldiers as a result of racial profiling. For example, the blacksoldiers almost fight their white colleagues after a cook refuses togive them tomatoes. The film also shows identity discriminationsince the press covers only the white soldiers and associates themwith the entire success even when the Africans were largely involvedin the liberation process (Days of Glory).

Student`s Name

Why Psychics are either Loved or HatedPsychics are people who claim to see the future, read one`s mind and even see through one`s physic. There are various forms of these types of people all around the world. A great disparity comes in between the people who believe in them and those who think they are nothing but fraudsters and swindlers.There are various reasons as to why some of the people believe in psychics. According to the article 4, almost all the people are displaying their confidence in psychics because of the kind of treatment they get from them. This is because to these people, psychics have been able to touch on the very thing that seems to give these people sleepless nights. Psychics know exactly what these people are looking for and that is exactly what they offer to them. Some of these things are friendship, and even a listening ear (Duncan).On the other hand, the first two articles reveal how all psychics are fraudulent. These articles show the way psychics are able to play with other people`s mind and psychology just to tell them what they want to hear. Psychics are not really psychics. They either carry out research about someone or even go ahead and have private detectives to dig deeper in their customers` mind (Shermer).There are such different opinions because of the vulnerability and ignorance in some of the psychic`s customers. Psychics use their customers` current condition to try and fish out information from them. In the article of `The confession of a Leading Psychic`, this psychic revels out that there are no powers they use. Psychics have attained the way on how to do wondrous things by studying and fishing information out of relevant sources in advance (Puffery). Nevertheless, other customers are not ignorant. So they know that psychics use the information that has been acquired from other sources (Shermer). They simply know that psychics are playing psychological games on them whenever they start asking them questions. It is important to expose fraud whenever it is discovered in psychics.Works CitedDuncan. “casa.colorado.” 19 October 2014. casaocolorado.com. 19 June 2015 .Puffery, Mere. “The confession of a leading psychic.” Newsweek (1981): 3-6.Shermer, Michael. “How psychics and mediums work.” How We Believe: The Search of God in the age of Science (2008): 3-5.