The Green Vehicle Technology Development

TheGreen Vehicle Technology Development

Beltramello,A. (2012), “Market development for green cars”, OECDGreen Growth Papers,No.2012-03, OECD Publishing, Paris. doi: 10.1787/5k95xtcmxltc-en

Thearticle focuses on the significance of green cars on the humanhealth, achievement of a green economy, threats to quality of air aswell as human health. Besides, it evaluates whether the green carindustry has potential to develop a promising new source for economiccompetitiveness and growth. Also, it evaluates the level of interestthe new industry commands among businesses, consumers andpolicymakers as well as the environmental and economic benefits itcan provide. It also compares the pros and cons of the green vehiclescompared to the traditional automobiles that are powered using fossilfuels. The advantage of comparing the traditional cars to the moderngreen vehicles is to help in the determination whether manufacturersof the new technology has a chance of surpassing the old-fashionedcar manufacturers. The report is intended for the general publicinformation therefore, it concentrates on giving details of themodern green cars.

Itis relevant to the green vehicle technology because it compares thegreen cars’ technology versus the traditional automobiletechnology. The most informative part of the resource is the outlineof the hindrances that are slowing down the development of theelectric car technology and the solutions that the government andother stakeholders should use to surpass the barrier. Nonetheless,the article is biased because it paints green automobiles’technology as an expensive, hard to implement and inconvenienttechnology that still has a long way to go. The resource will beuseful to the policymakers as it gives a comprehensive overview ofthe electric vehicles industry, but the assumption that the incumbentindustry will remain dominant is a farfetched conclusion. Manypeople have realized that investing in green cars requires higherinvestment than the traditional vehicles, but it helps them save onthe long run. Beltramello (2012, p. 22) asserts, “In OECDcountries, car emissions account for 55% of CO and 36% of theozone-causing NOX emissions.” The pollutants are too high such thatthe governments are developing strategies to lower the cost of greencars as a way to decrease environment pollution.

“Ina number of cases, governments made their support conditional on theproduction of more energy-efficient cars, or provided directincentives to consumers to purchase green cars, through car scrappingand replacement schemes” (Beltramello, 2012, p. 9).

“Petrol-and diesel-fuelled vehicles are becoming much more efficient, to thepoint that thegap between CO2 emissions from ICE vehicles andthose from hybrid and plug-in hybrid electricvehicles isforecast to be closing quite quickly” (Beltramello, 2012, p. 10).

“Inrecent years most automotive manufacturers have made announcementsthat they willintroduce some type of green vehicles in theirfleets, most of them already in 2011-12” (Beltramello, 2012, p.10).

“Cost-efficientsolutions to reduce the negative environmental impacts of roadtransport can beachieved through initiatives aimed atre-educating drivers about the use of their vehicles, as well as byincreasing the efficiency of transport through the use of informationtechnology in transport systems” (Beltramello, 2012, p. 10).

Vocabularies:Green cars, green growth strategy, clean vehicle markets, energysecurity, incumbent car manufacturers and battery electric vehicles

Gallagher,K.S. &amp Muehlegger , E. (2010). Giving green to get green?Incentives and consumer adoption of hybrid vehicle technology.Journalof Environmental Economics and Management,doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2010.05.004

Thepurpose of this article is to determine how the government and otherstakeholders are promoting adoption of the green car industry in thecontemporary economy. The resource is suitable for the policymakersand clients intending to invest in a clean-energy vehicle. Itsummarizes the benefits that an individual gets when he or shepurchases an electric vehicle versus the traditional fuel cars.According to the author, the OECD countries have introduced severalpolicies that intend to encourage consumers to prefer electric carsto traditional automobiles despite the green- cars bearing a higherprice tag than the incumbent technology. Among the issues addressedinclude the response of the consumers to the green cars due to therising fuel costs, tax incentives and other state implementeddiscounts on electric cars.

Keyterms:

hybrid-vehicletechnology, rebound effects, road transport sustainable, Originalequipment manufacturers (OEMs), tax incentives, Medium-termperspectives, limited spillover effects, Tax salience and Hybridvehicles

Reflection:

Thearticle states that the electric vehicles are the future option forreducing environmental pollution through green houses gases since therenewable energy does not emit toxic gases. Nevertheless, consumersshould investigate further on the assertion because some of theincumbent vehicles using gasoline energy are modified in such a waythat they emit similar toxic fumes to the green cars. In addition,the clients should consider the convenience of the cars comparingthat the infrastructure, battery recharging time and support servicesfor the green cars are not as widely available as the old-fashion carmodels. As such, the incentives the government offers may not beenough to motivate clients to invest in the vehicles whoseaccessories wouldd be hard to acquire.

Quotations

“Hybridvehicles consume less gasoline and emit less pollution per mile thantraditional engines with similar performance” (Gallagher &ampMuehlegger , 2010, p. 1).

“Unsurprisingly,we find that state tax incentives are positively correlated withincreased hybrid vehicle adoption” (Gallagher &amp Muehlegger ,2010, p. 2).

“Hybridvehicles consume less gasoline and emit less pollution per mile thancomparable non-hybrid vehicles” (Gallagher &amp Muehlegger , 2010,p. 3).

“Ratherthan increasing fuel economy, automakers often use the hybrid engineto improve performance acceleration or power additional amenities” (Gallagher &amp Muehlegger , 2010, p. 1).

“First,we find evidence that both the generosity and type of tax incentiveaffectsconsumer behavior” (Gallagher &amp Muehlegger , 2010, p.14).

Hamilton,J. (2011). Careers in electric vehicles. U.S.Bureau of Labor Statistics- report 4. Retrievedfrom http://www.bls.gov/green/electric_vehicles/electric_vehicles.pdf

Theobjective of this article is to provide advice to students and otherupcoming graduates regarding the feasibility of taking a career ingreen car development. It explores the availability of jobs and thepotential for its expansion in the future. In addition, the resourcealso analyzes the skills that most employers would consider whenhiring employees. The report is informative because it gives a briefhistory of the electric car development from the early 1990s to thepresent day. I addition, it lists all the companies that haveventured in the industry, which is a perfect starting point forprospective workers.

Keywords:

Electricvehicles, converted electric, plug-in hybrids, HOV or carpool lanes,green jobs, traditional and contemporary cars

Reflection:

Accordingto the author, the number of jobs in the industry has increaseddrastically because customers are embracing use of green cars. Infact, he reports that the car usage has risen from almost nil in 1999to reach over 350,000 users by 2007. Moreover, other companies haveannounced their interest to invest in the industry. In my view, acareer in electric vehicles development is promising since there arefew graduates who specialize in the industry. Besides, the vehiclesare likely to become the future trend as the developed and developingcountries are in the process of developing the infrastructurerequired to support the industry. However, the entrants shouldconduct further research on the careers because the industry is inits infancy stage, therefore, demands individuals who are innovativeas well as conversant with research and development.

Quotations:

“Manyof the first automobiles were powered by a battery and not by

Gasoline”(Hamilton, 2011, p. 1).

“Electricvehicles even outsold gasoline-powered vehicles in the early 20thcentury”(Hamilton, 2011, p. 1).

“Inthe United States, electric car sales increased from near zero in1999 to a high of about 350,000 units in 2007” (Hamilton,2011, p. 1).

“Forexample, California offers tax credits of up to $5,000 on an electricvehicle purchase” (Hamilton, 2011, p. 2).

“Electricvehicles can be classified as hybrids, plug-in hybrids, andall-electric vehicles” (Hamilton, 2011, p. 2).

Perdiguero,J. &amp Jiménez, J.L. (2012). Policy options for the promotion ofelectric vehicles: a review. TheResearch Institute of Applied Economics,1- 44.

Thisarticle is intended for the policymakers and regulators of the cleanenergy cars’ manufacturers. It mainly focuses on the economicactivity of people in Barcelona, and their determination to invest inthe automobiles. Besides, the article also investigates whether therecent campaign to reduce greenhouse gases pollution, tax reductionon the green cars and the escalating fuel prices do affect the fuelprices. In addition, it addresses the main obstacles thatmanufacturers face when making the electric vehicles as well asappropriate steps that stakeholders can use to overcome the barriers.Finally, the article analyzes the impact of increased application ofthe clean energy engines have on the mobility industry.

Keywords:Electric vehicle public policies recharge system internalcombustion city air quality infrastructure for recharging rangeanxiety

Reflection

Accordingto the author, enhanced research and development is the primarycontributor for the industry to reach its peak development.Nevertheless, development of infrastructure such as charging centerswould be necessary for potential clients to purchase the vehicles. Besides, the car usage will also be limited because a single batterycannot cover a very long distance.In my view, the hybrid cars thatfeature the traditional gasoline engine and an electric engine wouldbe the most marketable since the fuel engine complements the electricsystem when the power is exhausted. Finally, I think electric carsusing magnetic electric generator is the future of the industrybecause it produces unlimited power even if the technology is yet tobe fully exploited.

Quotations

“Theupward trend in fuel prices and the desire to reduce pollution levelsmean that the electric vehicle has become an increasingly attractivealternative in recent years” (Perdiguero &amp Jiménez, 2012, p.3).

“However,rising oil prices, the reduction in the cost and the increasedautonomy of electric batteries, and increasing concern regarding theemission of greenhouse gases in developed economies, have combined toraise interest in the potential of electric vehicles” (Perdiguero &ampJiménez, 2012, p. 3).

“Theaim of this paper is to review the broad range of measures that thepublic sector might implement to promote the electric vehicle and toreport on the findings of the first pilot programs implemented invarious countries (Perdiguero &amp Jiménez, 2012, p. 5).

“Afurther advantage of the electric vehicle is that it should lead toan improvement in city air quality (as electricity generating plantsare typically located some distance away) and noise levels”(Perdiguero &amp Jiménez, 2012, p. 6).

“Variousreports conclude that consumers would be willing to make the switchif the electric vehicle reduced energy costs. Pike Research (2009)reports that two-thirds of consumers would even be willing to pay ahigher price for the vehicle, under this condition” (Perdiguero &ampJiménez, 2012, p. 7).

USADepartment of Energy (2011). Onemillion electric vehicles by 2015: February 2011 Status Report.Retrieved fromhttps://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/1_million_electric_vehicles_rpt.pdf

Theobjective of this article is to give incite to the entrepreneurs onupcoming and promising business opportunities. It discussesPresident Obama’s plan to enhance the environmental conservationand reduce vehicles using the toxic fossil fuels by 2015. Accordingto the author, there are critical barriers that make’s thepresident’s goal quite ambitious, but the progress so far ispromising. In addition, the resource is suitable for policymakers asit outlines the effect of the green vehicles technology developmentto both the entrepreneurs as well as the United States. Finally, italso focuses on the best approach the country can use to initiatelarge scale development of the technology.

Keywords:

Environmentalstewardship, infrastructure barriers, high occupancy vehicle (HOV),waived emissions inspection and national vehicle fleet

Reflection

Inmy opinion, the president’s ambition is valid because the number ofcompanies investing in the field is increasing drastically. As such,the client’s will have adequate electric vehicles available in themarket. However, the recharging cost and locations will be anotherchallenge because there are limited locations offering the service.The article fails to mention the financial strain and the reluctanceof entrepreneurs to invest in the industry. On the contrary, thegovernment rebate on the vehicles has promoted the sales of the EVcars through rebates in rewarding the entire communities that haveinvested in the automobiles.

Quotation

“Withmore research and incentives, we can break our dependence on oil withbiofuels, and become the first country to have a million electricvehicles on the road by 2015” (USA Department of Energy 2011, p.2).

“Currentfederal government policies, investments, research and development,and demonstration efforts supporting the deployment of EVs”(Department of Energy 2011, p.3).

“Theproduction capacity of EV models announced to enter the U.S. marketthrough 2015 should be sufficient to achieve the goal of one millionEVs by 2015” (Departmentof Energy 2011, p.3).

“TheDepartment of Energy is also working with local leaders in theirefforts to encourage EV adoption and drive consumer demand”(Department of Energy 2011, p.3).

“Fleetbuyers tend to make vehicle purchasing decisions based on the totalcost of vehicle ownership retail vehicle consumers tend to focus oninitial price” (Department of Energy 2011, p.8).

References

Beltramello,A. (2012), “Market development for green cars”, OECDGreen Growth Papers,No.2012-03, OECD Publishing, Paris. doi: 10.1787/5k95xtcmxltc-en

Gallagher,K.S. &amp Muehlegger , E. (2010). Giving green to get green?Incentives and consumer adoption of hybrid vehicle technology.Journalof Environmental Economics and Management,doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2010.05.004

Hamilton,J. (2011). Careers in electric vehicles. U.S.Bureau of Labor Statistics- report 4. Retrievedfrom http://www.bls.gov/green/electric_vehicles/electric_vehicles.pdf

Perdiguero,J. &amp Jiménez, J.L. (2012). Policy options for the promotion ofelectric vehicles: a review. TheResearch Institute of Applied Economics,1- 44.

USADepartment of Energy (2011). Onemillion electric vehicles by 2015: February 2011 Status Report.Retrieved fromhttps://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/1_million_electric_vehicles_rpt.pdf