Theoriesand Theorists in Psychology Research
Theoriesand Theorists in Psychology Research
Clinicalpsychology combines theory, science and clinical information for thesake of preventing, relieving and understanding psychologically-baseddysfunction or distress. As such, it enhances behavioral andsubjective personal development and well-being. Psychotherapy andpsychological assessment are crucial treatment practices forprofessionals in the field. Several countries classify and controlclinical psychology in a similar way to any other health carepractice (Clinical Psychology, n.d). The objective of this essay isanalyzing the psychodynamic and humanistic research theory as well asthe theorists as it relates to clinical psychology.
Oneof the major clinical psychological theories includes thepsychodynamic psychotherapy theory. It is a comprehensive analysisthat aims to establish the unconscious information in a patient’smind to prevent mental tension. The premise of the philosophy is thathumans are likely to underestimate the painful memories in their lifethrough assuming they never happened or does not affect them (Lemma,Roth & Pilling, nd). Sigmund Freud originated with thepsychoanalysis research method, and the aim of the strategy aims tomake the unconscious mind cognizant. Psychodynamic psychologyrecognizes the unconscious power, assessment of defenses andtransference as well as analyzes the ways childhood events influencesthe present psychological status of the clients (Creswell, 2009). Insome cases, an individual may be aware of the problem, but sometimesthe concerned people may successfully ignore past problems that inturn influence the current behavior and feelings. The treatmentapproach offers patients opportunity to revisit their past lifeexperiences as well as comprehend potential sources of challenges(Lemma, Roth & Pilling, nd). For instance, a person who underwentparental rejection in early years is likely to avoid entangling himor herself in close relationships. Besides, they manage to get rid oftheir painful childhood memory through discouraging cutting offpeople who attempt to form close relationships. While the individualmay appear healthy on the short term, he or she feels lonely in thefuture. Consequently, the loneliness leads to depression that deniesthem a healthy lifestyle. Also, it may lead to death (Lemma, Roth &Pilling, nd).
Thehumanistic approach is another essential research approach inclinical psychology. The approach began in the 1950s as a responseto psychoanalysis and behaviorism, Rogerian Therapy by Carl Rogers aswell as Rollo May and Viktor Frankl’s existential psychology(Writing Commons, 2012). The research technique holds that a patientsuffering from psychological issues needs empathetic understanding,absolute positive regard, and congruence. On the same note,humanistic thinking asserts that every human has intrinsic resourcesand potentials that could assist them to come up with inbuiltresources and potentials that can enable them to develop a strongerself-concept and personality (Mounier, 2011).
Althoughpsychodynamic and humanistic research methods are frequently used toaddress clinical mental problems affecting patients, their principlesare quite different. For instance, Freud’s psychoanalysis theorystates that childhood experiences influence the thoughts andbehaviors of the adults (Holder, 2013). Since the victims are oftenunaware that their history affects their brains negatively,psychodynamic targets to introduce consciousness in unconscious mindso that one can uncover imperative or repressed events and theirrelated emotions. When a counselor uses this approach, he or she actsas a blank slate because the patient projects the emotions (Holder,2013). On the contrary, the humanistic research technique integratesholistic methods to understand the way a patient’s perceptions andthoughts determine their characters (behavior) and feelings(emotions). It argues that humans react to multiple external stimuliand their deeds depend on learning and condition (Holder, 2013). Subsequently, learned behaviors can be undone through providingindividuals with assistance to identify pessimistic thought patternsand substitute them with optimistic characteristics. Positivethoughts help individuals to improve both behavior and feelings forthe better (Reynolds, 2007).
Bothpsychodynamic and humanistic theories are crucial in clinicalpsychology because they aim to uncover schemas that push theunconscious mind to gain conscious awareness. For example, a personsuffering from depression because of loneliness can understand thereason he or she has no friends (Reynolds, 2007). Similarly, theresearch approaches seek to unravel the undesirable beliefs andinterpretations that one must drop to live a normal life (Holder,2013). The theories seek to provide methods that psychotherapistscan understand patients with relationships and mental issues. Thedemand for psychological evaluation has drastically increased due tothe changed lifestyle conditions in the modern world. Pradesh (2011)associates the increased demand for the service to misplaced parentaldesires as well as pursuing the fast life motivated by theacquisition of quick money. “Living away from reality or in fantasyworld to a large extent is leading to the current stressful lifeconditions as people`s unfulfilled aspirations become a big burden ontheir thought process” (Pradesh, 2011).
Inconclusion, the psychodynamic and humanistic theories are essentialin clinical psychology as they help psychotherapists to solvebehavioral and emotional problems of the patients. The psychodynamicapproach seeks to understand the problem of a patient throughrevisiting their unconscious mind. On the contrary, humanisticapproach assesses a patient’s emotional and mental issues throughevaluation of their holistic tendencies such as emotional attitudeand physical behaviors.
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Holder,J.B. (2013). What are They? Comparing and contrasting three of themain counselling approaches. CounselingDirectory,web. Retrieved fromhttp://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/what-are-they-comparing-and-contrasting-the-three-main-counselling-approaches
LemmaA., Roth, A.D & Pilling, S. (nd). Psychodynamic Therapy: Whatskills can service users expect their therapists to have? ResearchDepartment of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology.Retrieved fromhttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/clinical-psychology/CORE/Psychodynamic_Competences/Service_User_Version.pdf
Mounier,E. (2011). Humanistic psychology. Retrieved fromhttp://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Humanistic-Psychology.pdf
Pradesh,A. (2011, Oct. 10). `Clinical psychology has importance in everyspecialisation of medicine`. TheHindu.Retrieved on July 29, 2015 fromhttp://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/clinical-psychology-has-importance-in-every-specialisation-of-medicine/article2525013.ece
Reynolds,P. D. (2007). Aprimer in theory construction.Boston, MA: Pearson/A and B.
WritingCommons (2012). Rogerian Argument. Web, retrieved fromhttp://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/ENGL001-2.5_-Rogerian-Argument.pdf