MillionClinical Multiaxial Inventory III
TheMillion Clinical Multiaxial Inventory was developed based on TheodoreMillion’s theory in 1977, to aid medical practitioners to properlydiagnose and treat mental illnesses. The MCMI-III was developed in1994 and revised in 2008. Most of the mental disorders assessed bythis tool are in line with the Diagnostic statistical manual (DSM).The DSM is a reference on classification of mental conditions toensure standardization of mental treatment. It was first published in1952 but has since been revised on different occasions to accommodatenew developments in the field of psychology and psychiatry. Ingeneral, the MCMI-III analyzes mental health in terms of personalityor behavior, emotionality and motivation to the treatment. TheMCMI-III is unique from other fields as it is anchored on a theoryand provides wide scope, comprehensive evaluation of a patient’smental disorder hence is a major landmark in the field of psychology.[ CITATION Jan02 l 1033 ]
TheMCMI is ideal for adults, above the age of eighteen, who have amental disorder. It consists of one hundred and seventy five ‘trueor false’ questions and therefore can only be administered toindividuals who have reading skills, at least eighth grade literacy,and take an average of thirty minutes for completion. The MCMI-IIIoperates on personality, clinical syndrome and correction scales. Thepersonality scale consists of fourteen personality disorder scaleswhich aid in the description of a patient’s character. The clinicalsyndrome scale identifies ten scales on a patient’s mentalcondition. The correction scale comprises modifying and randomindices which aid in monitoring a person’s response mechanism.MCMI-III also incorporates the Gross Facet Scales which aid inforecasting behavior based on previous observations. Tests areconverted and interpreted in terms of the scales for diagnosis andtreatment of mental disorders. [ CITATION Jan02 l 1033 ]
PersonalityAssessment Inventory (PAI) was developed by Leslie Morey in 1990, toaid in assessing adult personality and psychopathology, that is,mental disorders and their causes. This test contains three hundredand forty four items on general behavior answerable in one hour onaverage, and is ideal for literate adults above the age of eighteenand is taken individually or in a group. Advancement of technologyhas seen the development of computer software that eases theadministration of PAI tests. PAI is a self administered testtherefore the validity of the resultant score relies wholly on therespondent’s disclosure. This has been frequently a contentiousissue as it corrodes the validity of the resultant score.[ CITATION Mar10 l 1033 ]
PAIoperates on validity, clinical, treatment and interpersonal scaleswhich are then divided into subsequent sub-scales, giving a total oftwenty two scales. The validity scale, as the name suggests,analyses the accuracy of the respondent to point out inconsistency,infrequency, positive and negative impressions. The clinical scalesanalyze the traits of respondents in terms of behavior, psychotic orneurotic spectrums, to identify disorders such as Anxiety RelatedDisorders, Depression, Paranoia, and alcohol and drug problems.Treatment consideration scales enlarge the scope of diagnosis byconsidering external environmental factors causing mental disorderssuch as stress, and the respondent’s attitude towards the treatmentprocess. Interpersonal scale analyses a respondent’s interactionwith others in two ways warm or cold (rejecting) and dominant orsubmissive, therefore determines how they emotionally relate withothers. PAI also includes an antisocial features scale that assessescharacter’s pathology. The PAI, as well as the MCMI-III, are widelyused in forensics and correction centers.[ CITATION Mar10 l 1033 ]
Blais, M. A., Balty, M. R., & Hopwood, C. J. (2010). Clinical Applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. Routledge.
Jankowski, D. (2002). A Beginner`s Guide to the MCMI-III. American Psychological Association.