Xiaojia Guo WRA150

Xiaojia Guo


Xinqiang Li


Effectsof Overpopulation on a Country’s Economy


Peopleassume that there are other serious problems affecting the economy ofa country other than overpopulation. However, facts show thatoverpopulation is the main cause of economic problems. Fixing thecauses of overpopulation is the solution to many economic problemsaffecting a country. The world’s population is soon likely to reacha level that there will not be enough resources available to sustainlife. Population growth should, therefore, be checked to avoid thislikely catastrophe. Many social, environmental, and economic problemsare caused by overpopulation. Overpopulation is not only a problem inthe developing countries but also industrialized countries.Therefore, all countries should work together in ensuring that thereis limited population growth. Currently, the earth does not haveenough resources that can indefinitely sustain the current populationgrowth. Research shows that the country’s economic problems arecaused by the overcrowding in the society. The demand for food in thecountry increases. As such, this leads to shortages, which in turnincreases the prices of the available food, making food inaccessibleto many.

2.Identifying the effects of overpopulation

2.1.Exhaustion of natural resources

Asthe human population continues to grow, natural resources such asfresh water and forests are depleted. A study conducted by UNEPestablished that human consumption is far much surpassing theavailable natural resources. For instance, water resource cannot keepup with the increasing population and its supply is becoming limited.Conflicts develop from the scramble of this now scarce resource. Abig population is forced to turn out to desalination for their cleanwater, which is expensive. Fuel use is very common in the world weare in and especially in automotive. As such, this has led to a lotof pressure on the available oil mine. The increase in the fuel useas the population grows in the world.

2.2.Increased climate change

Thekey cause of climate change is the greenhouse gas emissions thatresult from increased human activities. Countries with largepopulations are developing industries that pollute the environment.For instance, by 2008 China was the world’s highest GHG emitter. Inaddition, China expects to peak its GHG emissions by 2025.

2.3.Reduction in funding

Fundingper capita has significantly reduced as because of increases inpopulation. The growth of school needs makes schools unable to meetneeds of all the students. This has led to reduction in the qualityof education offered by many schools especially in developingcountries, which have seen a higher increase in populations. Becauseof this, many countries are unable tosupport public schools asthey used to before.

2.4.Congestion in Traffic

Increasesin the population lead to traffic congestions especially incountries, which are not able to expand their road, rail, and airinfrastructures to accommodate the growing population. Congestionslead to a spiraling of economic problems because the workforce isless productive as well as less efficient. Thus, to avoid theseeconomic challenges, it is important to set up programs that willlead to a reduction in population growth.

3.Analysis of Supply and Demand

Naturalresources face competition when a country is overpopulated. Let ustake an example with fresh water. People use water for variousreasons such as bathing, agriculture, washing clothes, among others.The quantity of water consumed is directly related to attributes suchas cultural background, religious beliefs, financial status andeducation. The amount of water use can be reduced through education,technological advancements, and conservation practices. Thepopulation can increase, but the water supply will always beconstant. What an increasing population can do to a water supply isreduce the amount of water from the source due to overexploitation.Overpopulation raises the demand for water, which, in the end,exceeds the supply of the water resource.

Amaximum population capacity that can be served by a specific waterresource should be set. There is hence a shortage of water becausethe current population exceeds the maximum population that can beserved by the resource. People will demand more water, but the watersupply remains constant. As such, this will lead to the competitionfor the water resource and finally lead to its overexploitation.

4.Solution to the problem of Overpopulation

Inthe recent world, the world is working hard to reduce the increasingpopulation numbers. The population should adopt birth controlmeasures, regulations, and spreading awareness. From the discussionabove, fewer people will lead to less strain on the availableresources and finally be more cost effective. People are still notwilling to adopt the different methods of population control. Climatechange is on the rise due to the increasing human activities. Thegovernment can reduce the harm that the human activities are causingto the economy by decreasing the support ratio. Consequently, thissubstantially reduces the number of births per family because thecost of raising the family is high. More women, in this case, willtend to be career oriented rather than be housewives.

5. Conclusion

Withthe current increases in the costs of living and environmentalpollution, human beings should engage in ways that will help themregulate the number of children they give birth. Climate change,global warming and the decrease in the economic output is on therise. Subsequently, this means that there is an upward rate ofpopulation growth. Overpopulation is continuing to affect the currentworld negatively. Reduction in the rate of population is not onlybeneficial in enhancing the economy only, but is also vital inensuring a healthy populace in addition to ensuring that thestandards of living are improved. It is also beneficial to the publicas well because it ensures that public amenities are not overutilized. Therefore, this will reduce the conflicts that keep arisingdue to the competition on the available natural resources such asfresh water. Reduced number of the population will reduce the highlevels of unemployment.

Educatingthe people helps them to understand the need to have one or twochildren. Families that are not well up and choose to have more thantwo children are discouraged. Efficient birth control methods andfamily planning can help women in their reproductive choices. Peopleshould be educated on sterilization and abortion. Governments need tocome up with different ways to curb overpopulation through theintroduction of policies that are geared towards reducing the rate atwhich population grows in their countries. An example is to waivesome part of income tax to couples who have one or two children. Aspeople are inclined towards money, this will produce more resultsthat are positive to the reduction of the negative effectoverpopulation has on a country’s economy.


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