InHollywood Florida the value or the belief pattern of the communitymost importatntly is health as an aspect of life. From the interviewit emerges that the predominant ethnic and cultural groups are thewhite Americans. The predominant health problems that are seen in theclinic include the heart disease which is considered as the majorcause of death in Florida. However, there are a number of preventionprograms that have been put in place and they include presence ofseveral police stations, fire stations, fitness centers and dentaloffices. The community is satisfied with the support programs thatare available to them. Food in Florida is readily available andaffordable to the population that stays in the area with at least 116food pantries and 23 water fountains. A number of environmentalhealth issues arise in Florida community and one such is air qualitywhich can be said to be at 70 on a scale to 100 thus this infers thatthere is high level of pollution with the main pollutant being dustand noise. However, water disposal is a concern to them as well.

Inthe region there are a number of activity and exercise programs thatare available to both the adults and the youth and they include tencommunity centers offering fitness programs, summer camps for kids,yoga, YMCA and karate. There are a number of factors that affectsleep routines in the community and they include shifts of work withmost members working from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm, environmentaldistracters like noise, crowding and lights consumption of alcohol,caffeine, nicotine and drugs extracurricular activities during bedtime like TV watching, chatting on social media and health problemslike heart disease, dementia and COPD.

Thefindings established that the primary language in the area is Englishwith no barrier in communication. Additionally, there is no disparityin education levels of individuals within the community given thatthere are a number of institutions and programs that are wellattended and these include community colleges, special schools andprograms and continuing education.




Peer review 1

There are severalrelationships between the domestic policies and the involvement ofthe United States overseas. The desire to have an influence isvisible in both domestic and foreign policies. I agree with theauthor that the four freedom speech by President Franklin Rooseveltoutlines some of the aspects that the United States government wantedto have an influence on in its territories and the rest of the world.There freedoms include “freedom of speech, the freedom of worship,the freedom from want, and the freedom from fear&quot. From theAmerican point of view, over the years, the country has been able toestablish a stable democracy which promotes social, economic andcultural prosperity. It was the desire of the Americans to extend thenotion of American democracy to other parts of the world. The desireto promote freedom beyond the American borders is one of the mostimportant factors that had a huge influence on the foreign policiesadopted by the American government in the 20th century. Ialso agree with the author that democratic push for every body stillmotivates the United States to extend its influence beyond itsborder. The four freedoms outlined by President Franklin Rooseveltare important aspects of the American democracy. As a result, theAmericans believe that their social, economic and political systemsare superior and therefore must be adopted by other societies andnations in the world. Although the arguments in the article are notwell organized making it difficult to understand, the arguments madeby the author are valid and correct.

Peer review 2

I agree with the author thatthere numerous changes in the United States domestic and foreignpolicies but the ideals have remained fairly the same. The freedomsprovided by the united states constitution remains one of the mostimportant aspects of both domestic and foreign policies in the unitedstates. This includes the right to life, liberty and pursuit forhappiness. The foreign polices adopted the united states have aimedat promoting these ideals beyond the United States borders, bothdirectly and indirectly. The most visible foreign policies in thehistory of the United States were visible in the post war era or thesecond half of the 20th century. This is mainly becauseduring this period, the American government completely abandoned theisolationism policy and became more visible in the internationalarena. However, the fundamental freedoms outlined by presidentFranklin Roosevelt before the beginning of the second world war haveremains the most important ideas the united stated has tried topromote in the international scene. There freedoms include “freedomof speech, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want, and thefreedom from fear&quot. Securing these freedoms in within the UnitedStates border has been an important facet of the domestic policies.Although it is not an aspect of the United States foreign policy, Iagree that the United States role in the international arena can beviewed as a world police officer role. This is because the Americansindoctrinates and “enforces” the western ideas of good governanceand human rights in other parts of the world. This is visible inmajor foreign policies including Marshall Plan, The Truman Doctrineand the anti communism activities in Asia, Eastern Europe and otherparts of the world.





  1. What is the name of your site and where did this name come from? Note that some landscape sites do not have a formal name, however there may be an informal name, that is a name that local people refer to it. You may also discuss any name changes over time and the reasons for these name changes.

Thename the site is Chengdu. Chengdu is one of the largest cities inwestern china and the provincial capital of Sichuan province inchina. The city and its original name can be traced back to more than2000 years when the city was established. The name of the cityoriginates from the Chengdu plains, on which it is located, Chengduplains is a fertile expansive plain that has been used foragricultural farming since the early Chinese civilization. Thus, theplains were commonly referred to as the “country of heaven” or“land of abundance”. However, for several reasons, Chengdu hashad several names, which are not official but very popular in theChinese society. For example, in the first century, the king orderhibiscus to be planted in the city. Since then, hibiscus has been themost common flower in the city of Chengdu. As a result the city iscommonly referred to the city of hibiscus. Chengdu was established asa result of the advanced agricultural activities supported by thefertile plains. As a result, in the first century, brocade from theregion was very popular among the Chinese, especially the royal classas well as the international market. As a result, the city wasreferred to as “Jin Guan Cheng” meaning the Brocade city. Anothercommon unofficial name is title city (Faurot, 1992).

  1. When was your site settled/discovered? You may describe the circumstances regarding its discovery, including where did the occupants come from and why did they migrate.

Archeologicalevidence suggests that the Chengdu region in china has been inhibitedfor more than 4000 years. The region was a unique center for Chineseancient civilization. It is considered the most important center forancient cultures such as the Shu culture. It is therefore difficultto estimate when the site was discovered or the first settlement.However, the fertile land and the high productivity of the site mayhave influenced human settlement in the region (Faurot, 1992).

  1. What is the settlement history of your site? Include in your discussion what groups have existed or utilized your landscape, when they used it, and how they used it.

Chengduregion has the earliest settlement in western china and asia ingeneral. There is evidence of human settlement dating back more thanfour thousand years ago. This is approximately the time when the Shuethnic community established settlements in Sichuan province. Theking of the Shu society is believed to have established Chengdu wasthe capital of kingdom, although it was initially located in a smallsettlement located near the modern Chengdu city. As a result, Chengduevolved into an important administrative and cultural center in bothancient and modern society (Faurot, 1992).

  1. Discuss any philosophical, religious, or political ideological beliefs/values of those that settled/discovered your landscape. Specifically address how these beliefs/values affected how the landscape was used, manipulated and maintained. You may develop this answer based on a single group or include a comparison between groups.

Chengduis the birth place of the ancient Shu society in western china. As aresult, the cultural, religious and political philosophies andideologies had an important impacts had an important impacts on thedevelopment of the city. The Shu society had a unique civilizationwhich was significantly different from other cultures in Asia andother parts of the world. As a result, recent excavation, especiallyduring constructions has resulted into large quantities of culturalrelics and objects. The Shu culture was one of the most advancedbronze cultures in the ancient Chinese civilization. One of the mostimportant aspects of the Shu culture that has had an impact on theChengdu city and the Chinese society in general has been theteahouses. The teahouses are very common in Chengdu and can be tracedback to the Qing Dynasty in the ancient Shu society. They were themost common houses in the Chengdu streets in the ancient city. Theteahouses in the modern Chengdu city are important facets of the citytraditions (Faurot, 1992, Wang, 2003). Other important aspects of theancient civilizations evident in Chengdu include wide and narrowlanes in the city.

  1. Describe the general attitude concerning environmental protection and conservation in the area. How had this influenced the development and growth of the area?

Chengduis one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in China. Asa result, major environmental concerns that face major cities inother parts of the world are evident in the city. The city is home toover 14 million people. Therefore, increased population pressure onthe environment is one of the most important environmentalchallenges. This ranges from increased demand for human settlement,waste management, energy demands, as well as city transport. Thegeneral attitude on environment in the city has been increasingconcerns among developers and city resident on the importance ofenvironment management in economic development. Majority ofenvironmental problems in the modern cities result from focusing moreon economic development while ignoring environmental and socialconcerns. For example, the city officers and planners have aimed atencouraging the growth of rural settlements in the regionssurrounding the city to encourage urban rural migration to reduce thepopulation pressure on the resources in the city (Chengdu MunicipalGovernment, 2015).

  1. How are the local cultural characteristics displayed or articulated in your landscape? For some landscapes you may need to make interpretations, for example for a landscape site that is a golf course, the use of the course is indicative of a culture that values recreation, or the existence of a large parking lot is indicative of a culture that independent and automobile dependent.

Themost important cultural characteristic of Chengdu is the fact that itis an ancient city. Being one of the oldest cities in the history ofhuman societies, facets of the ancient civilization play a criticalrole in the city. A good example is the ancient irrigation systemknown as Dujiangyan irrigation system is considered the world oldestirrigation system dating back over 2000 years and covering 58kilometers. Other aspects of the ancient civilization that have beenpreserved in the landscape include the Wuhou shrine which wasconstructed in the 1stcentury and Du Fu thatched cottage (Stapleton, 2010).

  1. What transportation, agricultural or urban technologies where used/developed by those that occupied your landscape site? How do these technologies relate to the cultural background of the occupants?

Afast growing modern city with a huge population is always animportant challenge to city planners. However, advanced urbantechnologies, mainly architectural and transport technologies havehad an important influence on Chengdu. Being a cultural city andadministrative city, Chengdu will continue to grow. To sustain thisgrowth, Chengdu is served by advanced modern transport systems suchas air and railway transport. The Chengdu Shuangliu InternationalAirport is the one of the busiest airport in the world. It is ratedamong the top five biggest airports in china with the capacity tohandle the largest commercial aircrafts in the world. Chengdu alsohas a modern railway transport system that eases that ease themovement of people and goods.The Chengdu North Marshalling stationis the biggest station in Asia and one of the largest in the world.Other major passage stations are under construction. Chengdu haswell developed road transport networks mainly because it is thestarting point for major national expressways and highways.Traditionally, Jin River was used as a major transport channel, butdue to reduced water depth, it is no longer a major means oftransport (Chengdu Municipal Government, 2015).

  1. What is (are) the architectural style (s) of your landscape site? This may include landscape architectural or landscape design styles. How did the culture of the occupants influence the style?

Modernarchitectural developed have had a huge impact in Chengdu landscape.However, the modern architecture in Chengdu is largely influenced bythe ancient civilization that has lived in the area for thousands ofyears. Modern architectures have made attempts to incorporate thehistorical and cultural aspects of the city structures. This hasresulted into unprecedented developments in the city. The citystructures, building and architectural designs remains one of themost important memory storage of the city. However, modern ideas anddevelopment are more dominant in the modern architectural designs.There is not doubt that Chengdu is a modern city with sophisticatedmega architectural structures. For example, Chengdu is home to thelargest man made structure in the world, the New Century GlobalCenter (Chengdu Municipal Government, 2015).

  1. Describe the community structure of your landscape site or near your landscape site. Is it a small close-knit community, or a large city, or a dispersed/sprawling suburb?

Chengducommunity is largely an urban community. Chengdu is one of the mostpopulous city in china and the world with over 14 millioninhabitants. The population is diverse and lives in both urban andsuburb settlements in the rural areas surrounding the city. Thehighly populated are in Chengdu covers a region of over 12 thousandsquare kilometers. The urban society has mainly adopted modernliving where social, cultural and ethnic characteristics are becomingless relevant. Additionally, there is a rapidly growing foreignpopulation in Chengdu which has increased the cultural and socialdiversity in the region. Chengdu is a major manufacturing center inwestern china. Majority of the industries in the city are laborintensive and employ huge number of semiskilled and unskilledworkers. This group constitutes one of the largest segments ofChengdu community (Chengdu Municipal Government, 2015).

  1. Write a conclusion paragraph for this project. You may include a summary of what you have learned, what you anticipate about the future, what else you would like to learn, or what makes the landscape important, unique or valuable.

Chinais the fastest growing economy in the modern world. Being a majorcity in a fast growing economy, there are numerous aspects of Chengdulandscape that attract some attention. Human settlement in Chengducan be traced back to the early civilization in china, fourmillenniums ago. Throughout history, Chengdu has played an importantsocial cultural and political function in western china. This has hada huge influence on the rapid development of the city landscape inthe recent past. Although modern aspects of the city planning andcommunity are more dominant in Chengdu, the influence of ancientcivilization, mainly the cultures of communities that have lived inthe region have some influence on the city.


ChengduMunicipal Government (2015). Chengdu,

Faurot,J. (1992). AncientChengdu, San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center Publications.

Stapleton,K, (2010). CivilizingChengdu: Chinese urban reform, 1895-1937,Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Asia Center.

Wang,D. (2003). Streetculture in Chengdu : public space, urban commoners, and localpolitics, 1870- 1930,Stanford, Calif. : Stanford Univ. Press.





JulieBates has worked for five years as a loan officer with a satisfactoryperformance at 1stNational Bank. However, on June 2014, she was involved in a seriousroad accident resulting into traumatic brain injury which triggeredlost memory function and anger outburst. As a result, underwent fourmonths of therapy and was therefore unable to work. According to thesick policy in the bank, she was entitled to twp weeks pay and unpaidleave thereafter. Additionally, in order to return to work, Bates wasrequired to provide evidence that she effectively handle herresponsibility in the office. Bates’ therapists informed her thatshe can start working by the end of November but the bank notifiedher that her services at the office were required as at 17thof October. This is because another loan officer had a leave due atthe end of October and therefore could not operate with two lessofficers at the same time. However, Bates informed the HumanResources Manager that she can not be sure of her return until shemeets her therapist in mid November. As a result, she was dischargedbut since the bank could not wait for any longer.


Inthe interest of the bank and the community, mainly the customers ofthe bank, Bates can not go back to the office without a release fromthe therapist. This is because her condition may result into loss ofcustomers, resources as well as conflicts with fellow workers.Therefore, since Bates has been on unpaid leave for at least fourmonths, there is no doubt that the bank made attempts to secure heremployment. However, her continued absence is against the interestsof the bank especially because another loan officer has a duematernity leave. In my own view, the bank has the right to dischargeher from her position and have a replacement. This is because of thecost the bank is likely to suffer as a result of having two workerson leave. However, best practice would dictate that the bank shouldconsider creating another alternative or similar position for Bates.

Thereare state and federal laws which can be used to determine whetherBates has the right to retain the position or the bank is justifiedto discharge her. This includes laws that are concerned with disable,injured or ill employees. According to the Family and Medical LeaveAct, an employee who falls ill is entitled to medical related leave.Although some organizations have medical leave policies that areaimed at making the organization more attractable to the employees,the laws have the minimum requirement on medical or disabilityleaves. According to the Family and Medical Leave Act, any employeeworking in organizations that is eligible is entitled to a minimum of12 weeks medical leave every year. Although the leave is unpaid, theposition of the employee is protected by the law. The 12 weeks, whichis not necessarily consecutive, applies when the employee is ill(work related or unrelated illness) or need to take care of a sickmember of the family or new born child as specified by the law. Thelaw requires that the employee retains the health insurance benefitssuch as premium contribution by the employee and protect otherbenefits that the employ could have enjoyed if he or she was not onleave. Upon return to the workplace, the employee should be restoredto the same position or an equivalent position in relation toresponsibility, remuneration and other benefit.

TheAmericans with Disability Act protects disabled individuals inAmerica from any form of discrimination or prejudice in theworkplace. The law is meant to eliminate any barrier to equalopportunities because of disability. However, the Americans withDisability Act protect individuals who are qualified for anemployment position but are likely to be discriminated due to theirdisabilities. This includes the ability of the individual to completethe essential aspects of a job with or without accommodations.However, the law does not cover any medical leave related todisability, which is covered by the family and medical leave act.

Bothlaws apply in Bates case. According to the Americans with DisabilityAct, she was not discharged based on her disability. Due to hercondition, she was unable to carry out the essential functions of aloan officer and therefore required a recommendation from hertherapist. Thus, she did not have the right to retain the job basedon the Americans with Disability Act. On the other hand, the bank hasfulfilled the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act. Bateshad been on leave for more than 12 weeks, where her position wasprotected. After 15thof October, she no longer enjoyed the protection of the law. In thebest interest of the bank, the human resources manager had to find areplacement for her since he was not sure of her return. Therefore,Bates did not have a right to retain her position as a loan officer.




Responseto Journal

Thedefinition of political philosophy is correct and broad. The authormakes a correct statement to state that what has been studied in oneweek is a tip of the iceberg. This is because political philosophy isa wide topic that includes politics and political thoughts, humanrights and liberties, law, governance and justice among others. Theauthor also provides evidence that he has read the book by providingwhat he feels intriguing about the book. I agree with the author thatthe truth and just is one of the most important lessons in the text.Additionally, the text requires a critical analysis in order to learnfrom it. However, the conclusion is not clear.

Responseto Discussion1

TheRing of Gyges provides an important insight in understanding theRepublic by Plato. The author gives a correct interpretation of thebook in relation to the republic. The main theme of the book is tomake the reader understand why men are just or unjust. The authormakes a correct observation by stating that men are not just for thesake of just. For example, being just is not the same as beingvirtuous. This is especially true when justice seems to serve thepower and the political class while undermining the happiness of thesubjects.

Response to Discussion2

The author gives a fair reviewof The Ring of Gyges. I agree with the observation that the storyline is used to show how injustice in some cases can be better thatjustice. I also agree with the author conclusion about the views ofSocrates on justice and injustice in the society. In the conclusion,the author makes an informed comparison of the mythical story in theRing of Gyges and the City-Soul analogy.