Curriculum Guide for Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Mathematics


CurriculumGuide for Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Mathematics


CurriculumGuide for Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Mathematics


Accordingto (Sweet, 2000), until in the recent past, reading instructionfocused almost exclusively on cognitive aspects. However, with time,it has become to be understood that reading involves much more thanthat, with factors such as social interaction, personal attributes,and prior knowledge are vital. When teaching reading, there are threemajor goals that the teacher should aim at achieving in the learner,that is, fluency in form of automatic word recognition, comprehensionof text, and development of a love of literature and a desire to readmore (, n.d).

Beforestarting out, the teacher should develop a suitable strategy to beused in learning first (Farrell, 2001). Achieving fluency can beachieved by making sure that students identify words quickly andaccurately -decoding. The best way to learn how to decode is throughconverting printed words into spoken language. The use of structuralanalysis and syllabication techniques of recognition of words bysight can be used in sounding words out during the decoding process.Sounding of words out can be best achieved when the student is ableto associate specific spellings with specific sounds. Phonics can beof great use in relating sounds and spellings since over 84% of allwords in English are phonetically regular. As such, teachingsound-spelling relationships is very important and when this skill islearned at the early stages, learners find the next hurdles mucheasier. The teacher should help students in understanding that theseries of symbols called the alphabet maps out the sounds in alanguage in a predictable manner. Understanding this is key insightto early reading. After learning the basics of reading, the next stepshould be to understand how to decode multisyllabic words and the keyto that is understanding meaning of prefixes and root words. Learnersshould also be left to try out new ideas on their own and in groupwork. Daily assignments should be used to gauge progress (,n.d).


Writingability is almost a mandatory requirement for most employment in mostparts of the world today. To be effective at teaching writing, theteachers should, first of all, provide models to students. Studentsshould be allowed to see others write and learn from observing. Usingothers to reinforce learner’s ability allows them to be motivatedand challenged to work harder (Graham et al., 2012). Secondly, everywriting activity should be accompanied by a purpose for doing it.Learners should be given the reason why they are writing so that theyput thought into the activity. The tutor should also be vigilant tonotice the ability of the student to write and encourage them to dobetter. Areas of weakness should be identified as early as possibleand reinforced (Young, 2006). The learner’s confidence should alsobe assured through encouragement. In addition to allowing learners toobserve others write, they should also be exposed to as many examplesof writing as possible. This way, they learn how to use words, joinsentences, construct sentences, punctuate and maintain grammaticalcorrectness. Every purpose for writing should be accompanied by adifferent kind of writing specific to that purpose. Another importantskill to teach is writing styles. Learners should be taught thevarious writing styles and their significance (,n.d).

Afterteaching the aforementioned techniques, learners should be taught howto brainstorm, make rough drafts, revise the written content, andfinally edit and proofread to ensure correctness. Grammaticalcorrectness is a very important aspect of writing. According to(Metzger,2012),grammar should not be taught as an isolated subject because that way,it has no positive effect on the learner’s ability to write.Instead, it should be taught in form of context proposes embedded insmall units of mini-instructions whenever necessary (Kirbyand Liner, 1981).


Toeffectively teach spelling, it has been discovered that using shortsegments of study produce better results than long ones. Using twentyminutes every day before normal study begins to do some spelling workcan be very effective. Speed should always be encouraged to keeplearners alert and interested. The learning environment should berelaxed to allow learners to feel free to make mistakes withoutfearing, but it should be intense enough to allow fast progress. Theteacher should focus on introducing techniques that the learners cancontinue using over a long time even if spelling classes areconcluded (Dobie, 1986). Techniques in sound-spelling can be veryeffective in achieving this goal (, n.d).

Aclass should begin with a test of several words, followed by animmediate self-check of the test. Students should be asked to proposepossible pronunciations for the words written and use the words in asentence to gauge their understanding. Once that is done, the teachershould then introduce methods of building spelling skills. Learnershave been known to respond in a positive way when the learningstrategy offers specific remedies for spelling problems. Techniquesthat produce best results are those that use kinesthetic, visual,tactile, and auditory senses (Dobie, 1986).

Theuse of graphs and other symbols work best for kids. There are threemajor elements involved in understanding the speech-to-printconnection and the tutor needs to know them in order to be effective.These three are Phonemicawareness, letter knowledge, and sound/symbol relationships.


Teachingof Mathematics should aim at ensuring students enjoy learningmathematics, students learn important mathematics, mathematicsbecomes part of student’s everyday life that they find fun talkingabout, students solve meaningful problems, students use abstractionsto perceive relationships and structure, and finally, every studentis engaged by the teacher (Ramanujamet al., 2007).

Thebest strategy for teaching mathematics is by using mathematicalconcepts learned in class to solve real-world problems. Mathematicsis best learned when the learner is involved in the process ofsolving meaningful problems. Students should be taught about thedifferent parts of Mathematics and how the different pieces fittogether to form a whole. Although a step-by-step approach may beused, it is important to show the learners that the topics learnedare linked. Finally, learners should be taught that Mathematics is aworldwide discipline being taught and used everywhere (Portman &ampRichardon, 1997 Johnson, 2000).



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Graham,S., Bollinger, A., Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., &ampMcCutchen, D. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to beeffective writers. WhatWorks Clearinghouse, US Department of Education.

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Portman,J., &amp Richardson, J. (1997). TheMaths Teachers` Handbook.Heinemann.

Ramanujam,R., Subramanian, R., &amp Sachdev, P. L. (2007). PositionPaper on National Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics(No. id: 1219).

Sweet,A. P. (2000). Ten Proven Principles for Teaching Reading.

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Young,A. (2006). Teachingwriting across the curriculum.Pearson Prentice Hall.