Diabetes Mellitus


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Diabetes mellitus

D.Kcase study

According to the history and physical data, D.K is suffering from aform of diabetes mellitus known as insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM).In contemporary medical practice, this type is known as diabetesmellitus type 1. It is as a result of the autoimmune destruction ofthe pancreases. After the pancreas has been destroyed, the body it isnot able to regulate sugar sensitization. One of the symptomsindicating this disease is extreme weight loss, despite her describedappetite. Lack of glucose metabolization the body uses up energystore in the muscles, hence weight loss. Her increased hunger, alsoknown as polyphagia, is another sign of this type of diabetes. Theweakened body muscles compel her to eat more to replace the lostenergy. The third symptom, fatigue, is due to sugar depletion. Thechemstick blood glucose level, being 412mg/ld, is another indicationof this type of diabetes. Given that she had taken breakfast lessthan 3 hours ago, her results should have been less than 140 mg/ld.

Polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia are all symptoms of diabetes(Holt et al, 2011). Diabetes mellitus is indicated by polydipsia(thirst) and polyuria. The thirst is due to loss of water to thekidneys for purposes of diluting the sugars. In order to supply thebody cells with water, diabetics are forced to drink more water, andin the process, pass more urine. Polyphagia is due to lack of glucosein the body cells, hence the patient if forced to eat more food tomeet the body requirements. Therefore, glucose deprivation is thecause of excessive hunger in the patient.

Theshort-term care for the patient is to help her conditions slow down.This is best applied during the first stages of diabetes, which sheis in controlling glycaemia and blood sugar, according to Holt et al(2011), is the first step is slowing down the development of thedisease. The patient is supposed to exercise more and eat a wellbalanced diet. This would help her regulate what she eats, and livean active lifestyle, full of physical exercises. Additionally, partof her initial treatment include self-monitoring of the levels of herblood sugar, taking diabetes mellitus medications and visiting thehospital for regular checkups to monitor her condition. Generally,diet and physical activities are the best initial steps in managingher condition. While at it, D.K needs to be assigned a dietspecialist to help her decide on the foods that she is supposed totake, which will equally help her maintain a healthy lifestyle.

For long term solution, she needs to be put on insulin therapy. Thisis done by obtaining insulin treatment (in mode of injections) whichshe will use to regulate her blood insulin levels. One of the optionsunder this is obtaining a pump injection from the doctor, which shewill be using under regular supervision. Some of the factors thathelp determine the amount and frequency of her insulin shots are bodyweight and condition of the illness. Given that there is no knowncure for diabetes mellitus, the patient needs to continue consultingthe doctors over time, and keep her current condition in check. Bydoing this, she will be able to prevent the development of otherlife-threatening conditions.


Holt, R. I. G., Cockram, C., Flyvbjerg, A., &amp Goldstein, B. J.(2011). Textbook of Diabetes. New York, NY: John Wiley &ampSons.