Five Approaches Problem, Purpose and Questions

FiveApproaches: Problem, Purpose and Questions

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FiveApproaches: Problem, Purpose and Questions

Qualitativeinquiryandresearchdesignfocusmainlyon thephilosophicalhistory,underpinningsandthemainelementsthat revolvesaround theapproachesthat explainthisresearch.Itexploresthefive approachesthat arechoseninorderto comeup with therightexplanationpertainingto thestudy.Theresearchdesignsto eachof thetraditionsof theseinquiries.Itrelatesandcompareseachresearchstrategiesforthetheoreticalframeworks,data collection,data scrutiny, talewriting,writingtheoverviewto studiesandemployingstandardsof qualityandverificationof theresults.Thefive approachesincludethefollowingthenarrativeresearch,ethnology,phenomenology, groundedtheoryand thecasestudy.Theseapproachesare usedin theresearchto makethestudyto be wellexplainedwith relevantevidenceto supportit.

Intheapproachof Phenomenology, itfocuseson thestudyof thestructuresof consciousnessas experiencedfrom thefirst-person of view.Itis a styleof thought,a method,andan experiencethat havedifferentresults.Everypersonhas differentconceptandthoughtsregardingsomething that theythinkabout resultinginto verydifferentresults.Theapproachisprimarilyconcernedwith thesystematicreflectionon andthestudyof thephenomenaandtheconsciousnessthat usuallyappearsin theactof cognizance.(Bogost,2012).

Thisstudyof realitycan bedifferentiatedfrom theothermethodof analysiswherebyone seestheuniverseas objects,setsof objectsandobjectsreactingandactingupon eachother.In thisapproach,there are someterminologiesthat are usedto clarifymore.Theseterminologiesconsistofintentionality, intuition,evidence,noesis andnoema, empathyandinter-subjectivity andthelife world. Intentionality denotesto thenotionthatconsciousnessis of something always.Thisshowsthattheconsciousnessoccursas thesimultaneity of a consciousactandtheobject.Intuition,as usedin thisapproach,denotesto thecaseswherebytheintentionalobjectis directlypresentto theintentionality at play.itshowsthattheobjectpresentdetermineswhatone should think.Ashredof evidenceis usedto signifythatthestateof affairsandthepropositionhavea relationshipthisis meantto signifythesubjectiveachievementof truth(Bogost,2012).Noesis andNoema are thepartof theactthat givesita particularsenseorcharacter.Empathyandsubjectivity referto theexperienceof one’s bodyas anotheras wellas our inter-subjective engagementwith them. Thelifeworldexplainshoweachobjectstandsout as aloneas differentandwith themeaningitcan onlyholdforus.

Narrativeresearchis an approachthat relies on thespokenwordsorthevisualrepresentationof individuals.Thisapproachmainlyfocuseson thelivesof theindividualsas theyaretoldthrough their stories.Narrativestudyis a researchtechnique.Narrativeresearchis consideredrealworldmeasuresthat are appropriatewhenreallifeproblemsaretackled.Theyfocuson thestudyof theexperiencesof single individual embracing stories of their livesandusethelearnedsignificancefor thoseindividualexperiences.Thisapproachis broadly usedto explainsomeconceptsthat are of importanceto specificpeople,andthere is nomethodcan be usedto research.Like people`s,culturecannot be thesameandthenthere are nospecificmeasuresto tacklethatproblem.Thisforcesone to be ableto knowthestoriesof thepersonunder studyto lookforthecorrectwayof tacklingthatproblem(Bold,2011).

Groundedtheoryis a systematicmethodology that involvestheconstructionof theoriesthrough theanalysisof data. Thisslantis a researchmethodology that operatesalmostin a reversewayfrom thesocialsciencesresearchin thepositivist tradition.Astudyin thisapproachbeginswith questionsorjustcollectionof qualitative data. Asmoredatais beingcollected,thedatais reviewedcodescan begroupedinto conceptsandlaterinto categories.(Creswell&amp Creswell, 2013)Thecategoriesnowbecomethebasisof thenewtheory.Grounded theorymethodhas its goalof formulatingthehypothesisbased on conceptual ideas.Theothergoalis to discovertheparticipants’mainconcernandhowtheyare goingto resolvethem. Theapproachmainlydoesnot rely on theownindividualthinkingbutitrelies on theconceptthatmostpeoplebelieveitis right,andthatis through datacollection.Once thedata has beencollectedthemostcommoninformationwith thesameideais taken,thenitis studiedandafter confirmingitis rightthentheyputted together.After thedata havebeengatheredtogetherinto thecategories,theyare thenusedas a newtheoryafter theyhaveconfirmedto be of significanceto thestudy.

Ethnologyas an approachis thestudythat comparesandanalyzesthecharacteristicsof differentpeopleandtherelationshipbetween them. Theapproachtakestheresearchersthat have complied andthencomparesandcontrastsdifferentcultures.Theylookat aspectsof origins,languages,customsandnationsto be ableto judgenationsandpeoplesin theirtimes.Thegoalof thisapproachhasbeenthereconstructionof humanhistoryandalsotheformulation of theculturalinvariants. Thisapproachbelievesthatpeoplewhohavethesameoriginorbackgroundsharesa lotin commonbecausetheir ancientbeliefsstilloperateamong them. Thisshowsthatonce theyresidedifferentplacestheirbehaviorswill stillbe thesamenomatterwheretheystay.Peoplefrom developingcountriessharea lotin commonlike povertybecausetheir nationdoesnot haveenoughresourcesto makethem allbestablein their living.Ethnologyas a studydealwith thesebehaviorsthat affectthepeoplewhohavemuchin commonandtheyalsolookforthecorrectmeasuresto handle.Like in thirdworld countries there is abelievethatthesystemof educationis theone causingthistroublesthereforetheyintroduceneweducationsystemto solvethem.

Acasestudyis theapplicationof theresearchmethodinvolvingan in-depth, anddetailedexaminationof a subjectof studyandits relatedcontextual conditions.Itis a researchstrategythat investigatesa problemwithin its real-life context.Thisapproachissituatedbetween concretedata takingtechniquesandthemethodology paradigms.Acaseselectionisbasedontheinsightsto be produced.Subjectselectioninvolvestheinformation-oriented sampling. Thedecisionsregardingthecaseselectionaremadeinaccordance withthepurpose,processandtheapproachthestudy(Creswell&amp Creswell, 2013).

Researchproblemsin theapproaches

Narrativeresearch

It’shardto be ableto learnall thestoriesof a personorthepeoplemakingithardto makea reliableconclusionabout thepersonorpeople.

Itmay not alwaysstandalonefortheevidenceandsupportfortheconclusionsof a report.

Ethnology

Itis hardto comparedifferentpeople’sculturedueto thefactthattheymay sharenothingin commonandalsotheir backgroundmay differ.

Thistakesa lotof timeto lookat charactersthat makethepeopledifferentmakingitsotiresomefortheresearchers to doso.

Groundedtheory

Thedata may becollectedfrom peoplewith thesameinterestandopinionsmakingitunfavorableto others whohas a differentopinionbutdidnot getan opportunityto participate.

Thetheorymay mixdifferentaspectsthat may not fitthepeoplein thestudiedarea.

Phenomenology

Differentpeoplehavedifferentthoughtstherebynot possibleto studyeachandeverypersonin theworld.

Peoplemay be livingtogether,butthatdoesnot meantheyshareeverything in their thoughts.

Casestudy

It`ssometiresometo carryastudyon everyaspectaffectingpeopleanditwill consumea lotof timeandresourcesiftheytryto doso.

Peopleare dynamicsotheir thoughtstodayare differentfrom theirs tomorrow.Thismeansthatthere has to be dailyorfrequentstudyon thepeople.

Researchpurposeon theapproaches

Narrativeresearch

Toknowpeople`sstoriesinordertocomeup with thebestwayof solvetheirissues.

Ethnology

Tolearndifferentcultureswith thepurposeof seeingwhattheysharein commonandthishelpsfinda suitablewayof handlingthem.

Groundedtheory

Tocomeup with a theorythat will makepeoplelivemuchbetter

Phenomenology

Tocomeup with waysof livingwith differentpeopleallover theworldby understandingthateachpersonthinksdifferently.

Casestudy

Toruna studythat summarizesabout somespecificbehaviorsthattestudiedpeoplehave.

Researchquestionson theapproaches

Narrativeresearch

Wheredidyouoriginatefrom?

Whatare your traditionalcustoms?

Howyourcustoms doaffectsyoutoday?

Ethnology

Whatdoyousharein commonwith otherpeoplefrom differenttribes?

Whatdon’tyousharein commonwith your neighboringtribe?

Groundedtheory

Whatdoyouthinkwill makeyour lifebetter?

Ifyour opinionsare accepted,doyouthinkitwill changeotherpeople`slifepositively?

Phenomenology

Howdoesyour thinking dodifferfrom your familymembers?

Doesyour thinkingaffectyour behaviors?

Casestudy

Whatdoesyour people’scultureaffectthenationas a whole?

Howdoesyour thinkingmakea differentto your people?

Thebestapproachto useis theethnologyapproachtriesto explainwhatis commonanddifferentamong thepeoplesculture.Evenifthere is thechallengeof not beingableto knowallpeopleculturein orderforone to knowwhattheysharein common,there are stillthingsthat peoplesharesin commonthat makeitpossibleto predicttheir behaviorsandthissavestime.There are thingsthat are commonbetween differenttribesdueto thefactthattheylivein thesamenationunder thesameleadership,andthisinfluencestheir behaviorsforcingthem to behavein a similarway.There are a lotof thingswesharewith neighborsdue frequentinteractionswith them. Thepurposeof thisapproachdefinesthesuitablewayof handlingpeoplewith specificbehaviors,andthismakesiteasyto knowwhattheyareexpectedof them.

References

Bold,C. (2011). UsingNarrative in Research.London: SAGE Publications.

Bogost,I. (2012). Alienphenomenology, or, What it`s like to be a thing.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Denzin,N., &amp Lincoln, Y. (2003). Strategiesof qualitative inquiry.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lieblich,A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., &amp Zilber, T. (1998). Narrativeresearch.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Qualitativeinquiry and research design.Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Segalla,S. (2009). MoroccanSoul.Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press