Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Anemia

PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ANEMIA 4

PathophysiologicalMechanisms of Anemia

PathophysiologicalMechanisms of Anemia

Irondeficiency anemia (IDA)

Pathophysiology: On a gender scale, IDA is more prevalent in women than men becausethey continuously lose blood during delivery andmenorrhagia(Huether&ampMcCance, 2012)..

Genetics:There are five types of gene involved in hereditary iron deficiencyanemia: DMT1, Glutaredoxin 5, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin, andMatriptase-2. They gene mutations alter the ability of the body toabsorb iron, Human patients carrying these mutations have similarerythrocyte abnormalities and hepatic iron overloads.

Age:The levels of hemoglobin are lower in adults than it is in new-borns. Thus, the elderly have a higher chance of suffering fromiron-deficiency anemia than younger people.

Raceand ethnicity: African American females have lower venous hemoglobinconcentrations with a mean of 13.0g/Dl than white females who have amean of 13.8g/Dl.

Sideroblasticanemia

Sideroblasticanemia is a group of anemias that have the same features. They areall caused by insufficient iron in blood that impedes heme synthesis.

Pathophysiology

Thecommon feature of all Sideroblastic anemias is the abnormality ofhemoglobin synthesisin the bone marrow, but theyhave also differentcauses altogether (McPhee &amp Hammer, 2012). Sideroblastic anemiais either acquired or inherited. The most common is the AcquiredSideroblastic anemia which occurs as a blood disorders that has noknown cause. It is associated with other disorders such as themyeloproliferative or myeloplastic disorders. The acquiredSideroblastic anemia is caused by other secondary conditions such asalcoholism, reactions to drugs, hypothermia, or deficiency of copper.

Genetics:Hereditary Sideroblastic anemias are very rare and mostly occur inmales because they are transmitted through a recessive x-linked gene.

Ageand gender: Occurs mostly in young males because it is transmitted byan x-linked gene. Female carriers of the gene show no signs of thedisorder.

Similaritiesand differences

Thesimilarity between IDA and SA is that they both affect the processesof hemoglobin synthesis. The difference is that SA can be hereditaryor acquired but through loss of blood. In contrast, IDA is caused byphysical loss of blood.

References

Huether,S. E., &ampMcCance, K. L. (2012). Understandingpathophysiology(Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. ◦Chapter 19,“Structure and Function of the Hematologic System”

McPhee,S. J., &amp Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiologyof disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (LaureateEducation, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.◦Chapter 6, “Blood Disorders”