can be defined as a study of the physical and biologic manifestationsof disease as they interrelate with the underlying physiologicdisturbances and abnormalities. does not directlydeal with the disease’s treatment. However, it tends to explainprocesses within the body which in turn results in a disease’ssigns and symptoms. Every disease or disorder has its distinct waythrough which it manifests itself. This is through signs and symptoms(Crowley, 2013). is hence essential in avoidingmisdiagnosis. The document below reviews various scenarios attributedto different patients and hence offering the pathophysiology of everydisorder.


Casestudy one

Atnormal conditions the body temperatures of the child ranges at 98.6degrees Fahrenheit which is equivalent to 37 degrees Celsius. Thepulse at a normal condition has a rate of approximately 60 to 100beats (McPhee et al., 2003). On the other hand, the respiratory rateof the child is between 23 to 31 beats per minute at the normalcondition. Any condition contrary to these reveals that the kid issuffering from an ailment.

Thebody temperature of baby Jennifer was 103.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Thisreveals that the body of the child has a disorder. The major cause oftemperature escalation especially in children is the fever. However,tonsils can also contribute to the variation of these conditions.Similarly, the pulse is extra high. However, having a pulse of 128beats per minute reveals that there was a problem with the child’sbody functioning.

Themain cause of this abnormal condition was cold. The main adaptiveresponse to this condition is giving the child paracetamol.Similarly, wiping the kids body with a cloth soaked in cold water canhelp in lowering the elevated temperature. However, seeking medicalattention as soon as possible is the best alternative to avoid theescalation of the problem (MacCance &amp Huether, 2006).

Casestudy 2

Thesecond scenario was of Jack, who had redness and irritation of hishands. The fact that he is not in discomfort reveals that he had noserious disorder. The body should retain its normal color in itsnormal condition and free from any kind of foreign condition.However, the redness and hotness reveals that he could be sufferingfrom a rash. The fact that he comes into contact with abrasivesolvents and chemicals is a clear proof that Jack was suffering froma rash. An adaptive response this rash is the application of someherbs which help fighting the rash.

Casestudy 3

Thefinal scenario was of Martha, a 65-year old woman who was sufferingfrom hypertension. The existence of a racing heart and loss ofappetite are clear symptoms of hypertension. The racing heart revealsthat the blood pressure has exceeded the normal limits (McPhee etal., 2003). The most effective adaptive response to her condition isworking on her lifestyle. This implies that she needs to do exercise,and consider her diet. These are chief aspects which help incontrolling the blood pressure. The woman can also buy a personalmachine to be checking the blood pressure variation constantly.However, knowledge on the diet she should consider and how well shecan be practicing can be of great help to her.


Theabove discussion reveals that the pathophysiology of various healthconditions. The discussion has revealed that each disorder has itsdistinct way in which it manifests itself. Similarly, every disorderhas its distinct adaptive response. The adaptive responses help incountering the adverse effects of every disorder. However, seekingmedical attention is a key aspect since the adaptive response has noguarantee in treating. , however, is a crucial aspectthat needs to be taken serious so as to ensure people can diagnosetheir condition as early as possible.


Crowley,L. V. (2013).&nbspAnintroduction to human disease: Pathology and pathophysiologycorrelations.Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

MacCance,K. L., &amp Huether, S. E. (2006).&nbsp:The biologic basis for disease in adults and children.St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Mosby.

McPhee,S. J., Ganong, W. F., &amp Lingappa, V. R. (2003).&nbspof disease: An introduction to clinical medicine.New York [u.a.: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.