BECKAND BOURDIEU WORKS ON REFLEXIVITY
Ina sociological perspective, sociologists treat the family as aninstitution besides a socialization unit. The family as asocialization unit is identifiable through such aspects as therelationship that exists between the members of a nuclear family. Itis also evident from the roles assigned to different genders in thefamily. The sociologists also look at the family in its culturalmake-up and how it progresses.
Here,a critical look at such issues as gender, race, sex and ethnicity andtheir influence on the family pattern is analyzed. Of equalimportance to the sociological makeup of the family is therelationship at different stages of family development. This involvessuch stages as coupling, parenting and even spousing. As for the caseof Parenting, such things as the roles of different genders,socialization and fostering of the family are taken intoconsideration.
Inthe context of social theory, reflexivity is observed when theprinciples on which a displace is based are applicable equally to thediscipline in question. [CITATION Mar09 l 1033 ]Anexample is that of a psychological theory that should explore all themental process o the psychology of the psychologist. Reflexivity isassumed to have taken place when the observations made by differentobservers in a way or so directly influence the situations that theyare observing.
Theobservations made are not a factor of the observer’s input. Thismeans that the observer is not supposed to be taking part in orinfluencing the observations in any way. Therefore reflexivity isanalogous to the principles of the observer.[CITATION Mar121 l 1033 ]
Ina broader aspect, reflexivity regarding sociology explains therelationship between the cause and the effect of various undertakingsin a family. [CITATION Sar03 l 1033 ]Thecauses and the effects take place in either direction until itbecomes difficult to distinguish one from the other. In asociologicalperspective, reflexivity defines the ability of a person to recognizethe forces that handle socialization which change their position in asocial structure.
Inhis attempt to analyze reflexivity, Bourdieu focused on the Algerianand French society. But still his analysis gives us a deeperunderstanding of the sociological changes that occur in our societyand how they are brought about. He introduced many concepts in hisanalyses arguments. [CITATION Rez02 l 1033 ]Onesuch concept is the concept of capital. In his analysis, capital goesbeyond material possessions and includes social or cultural capital.
Heclaims that cultural capital plays a crucial role in the creation ofthe power of the society. This is dependent on how the capital iscreated or brought from other forms of capital. Cultural capitalprovides a way through which the society gets to dominate the economyin a non-economic way. This domination translates to a hierarchy thatcreates classes due to tastes and power.[CITATION Ulr07 l 1033 ]
Anotherimportant concept by Bourdieu is the field. Bourdieu defines thefield as the platforms where people converge to express theirideologies. It is in the fields that people compete for the variouskinds of capital available.[ CITATION Vol07 l 1033 ]Within the field, there are numerous relationships includingcultural, religious and education. There exist tensions andideological differences among the people in the fields. Suchdifferences aid in the explanation of the power differences. Womenoften behave differently in different scenarios and places. [ CITATION Ulr06 l 1033 ]Howa woman behaves in the public is entirely different from how shebehaves in private and so in intimate areas. These places arereferred to as arenas of power.
Still,Bourdieu has a concept which he terms Doxa. This is a combination ofheterodox and orthodox beliefs and norms. Doxa is sometimessubstituted for the common sense that is always behind the decisionswe make. [ CITATION Ulr94 l 1033 ]Itis about merging our thoughts to the ongoings in the real world thustransferring from imaginations to real life situations.
Beckdevised the so-called reflexive modernization. In his explanation ofthis phenomenon, he stated that reflexive modernization he linkssocial change to an industrial society. He also likens reflexivemodernity to a society with risks. In the risk society, theadvancement of knowledge has led to imaginary uncertainties promptingthe need for scientific explanations. [ CITATION Ulr09 l 1033 ]Theindustrial society engages in the manufacture of various commoditiesas the risk society subject the industries to various threats thatare likely to bring to a halt its management and success.
Habitusalso formed a critical art of the analysis. This was defined as aphenomenon that has been embodied. [ CITATION Jör07 l 1033 ]Thisphenomenon goes beyond our thoughts and perceptions of the world. Italso encompasses our behavior and bodily positions in the world. Bythis, it defines how we walk, our facial expressions and even ways ofsitting. Our cultural backgrounds influence the activities mentionedabove. [ CITATION Rob07 l 1033 ]Bourdieuthus concludes that the human body is a device which illustrates thebasics of the culture of the person.
Identityprimarily refers to the answers of such questions as who are you andwho am i. Self-Identity recognizes every person as unique and of his kind in the society where he lives. Unique in the sense that he is ina way different from the other people. [ CITATION Vol07 l 1033 ]Reflexivityplays a very crucial role in shaping one’s self. From reflexivity,one comprehends his or her identity and self. Godden’s, one of thewriters on social sciences in his exploration of the post-traditionalculture explains to individuals their self-identity throughreflexivity. He explains that through reflexivity, we learn toappreciate who we are. Reflexivity aids in shaping our lives andmorals by giving our culture a place in the society. [ CITATION Gai06 l 1033 ]Throughthis, we can monitor our movements, craft our bibliographies andshape our lives to the standards acceptable by the beliefs ND normsof our cultures.
Throughreflexivity, we learn not to uphold our dignity and treat ourselvesin the most special way. This therefore means, we do not take forgranted our being or just inherit who we are from our forefathers.[ CITATION Joh07 l 1033 ]Weview and treat our identities as projects thus always engagingourselves in making it better every day. This creates a sense ofresponsibility of taking good care of our identities. It can then beconcluded that self-identity is not anything to do with our traits orphysical characteristics. It is rather an individual’scomprehension of his biography. Godden’s states that self-identityis progressive thus continuing all the times. One cannot change hisself-identity as he so wishes any easily and abruptly.[ CITATION Sue14 l 1033 ]
Self-reflexivityis a tool that aids in tackling the anxieties in the world. One canplan for his life from having a mastery of the unfortunates that hitthe world at different times. By planning for the variousuncertainties one, recognizes that such are a part of his or her lifethat he or she must encounter at one point of his exploration of theworld. Good planning and mastery gives one an opportunity to bringunder control the life uncertainties.
Beckand Bourdieu offer us a very span elaboration on the sociologicalperspective of reflexivity. Everyone belongs to a particular culture,and it is from the culture that one’s life is shaped to be what heis.[ CITATION Ann07 l 1033 ]In a normal societal setup, the various classes always exist, andthese are brought about by where we are placed after the completionin the fields as exploredby Bourdieu. The cultural capital acts as a real propeller towards adomination of the society by a particular community. Whether we aredominating the society or not should not be of a lot of weight in ourlives. [ CITATION The06 l 1033 ]
Reflexivityis meant to give us an opportunity to appreciate ourselves ratherthan just inheriting the people we are. [ CITATION Pet08 l 1033 ]Onceone can comprehend his biography, he has a breakthrough towardshandling some of the significant challenges that are affecting theword. He can learn that he is unique in one way or another and thusshould not attempt to lead another person’s life or imitate how helives. He as well learns to co-exist in the society he is brought upbearing in mind the differences in personalities. From the culture,he gets to know what is expected of him in terms of gender roles andresponsibilities. With all these, the society becomes habitable forevery human being, and all the challenges can easily be addressed.
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