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Sociology421

Severalstudies carried out on corporal punishments and its effects contendthat spanking is a form of domestic violence and at the same time canequal to child abuse (Mason &amp Gambrill, 1994). Many parents whomainly rely on spanking as a form of disciplining their children endup abusing them since it becomes a habit and lack other effectivemethods of correcting bad behavior. Research indicate that variousnegative effects such as criminal behavior and aggression ofcorporal punishments reach into adulthood hence qualifying spankingas a form of domestic violence. The current society for instance inthe United States view spanking as an effective way of discipliningchildren since it does not cause injury but inflicts some pain thatwill make the child fear to repeat such mistakes or ill manners.Despite the fact that many parents argue that corporal punishment isnecessary to bring up well behaved children, many researches view itas unnecessary since its negative effects far outweigh its intentionsof instilling discipline in children. Such views therefore imply thatindividuals should not condone corporal punishments and societyshould adopt other ways of disciplining their children and put to anend corporal punishment.

Mason,M.,&ampGambrill, E, (1994).&quotShouldthe Use of Corporal Punishment by Parents be Considered Child Abuse?&quotfrom Debating Children`s Lives: Current Controversies on Children andAdolescents, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Psychology101

Haney,Banks, &ampZimbardo (1973) converted a basement of the StanfordUniversity psychology building into a mock prison to find out whetherthe brutality reported among guards in America was because of theaggressive traits or was due to the prison environment. Ethically,the manner in which Haney et al conducted the whole experiment iswrong. This is because the contestants were mainly students who wereattracted by the remuneration offered per day without afully informedconsent. The level of disgrace and suffering that the participants(mock prisoners) underwent is unethical. The most unethical issuewith this experiment is the fact that the participants who acted asprisoners were not in any way protected from psychological andphysical harm. For instance, one prisoner had to be liberated afterjust 36 hours because of uncontainable bursts of screaming, cryingand rage.

Haney,C., Banks, W. C., &amp Zimbardo, P. G. (1973) A study of prisonersand guards in a simulated prison.NavalResearch Review,30, 4-17.

Psychology101

Thedream that I looked up in the dream dictionary was on being abandonedby my closest college friends. The dream dictionary interprets thedream on being abandoned as a suggestion to let go my past feelingsand characteristics that hinder personal growth. Such a dream meansthat a person has fear of being deserted, abandoned or betrayed.Dreams on abandonment many of the times are because of loss of fearof losing a loved one. This interpretation fits with the chapterreading since they both argue that many of the times people dreamabout their inner thoughts, fears and worries. The dream onabandonment best fits into the activation-synthesis theory ofdreaming. The theory was first developed by Hobson &ampMcClarley in1977, who suggested that circuits in the brain are triggered duringREM sleep and causes the areas involved with emotions, sensations andmemories to become active.

Istrongly believe that dreams have real meaning. Dreams are areflection of what a person has experienced in the past, is currentlyundergoing and thinking or the fear of experiencing it in the future. There are various issues which can be raised on the Dream Dictionaryand other related websites. Such websites are not providing any realevidence such as research results or studies carried out to validatetheir interpretation of various dreams. Uniformed people reading suchsites may accurately apply to the various interpretations offered andend up taking some actions, which might have serious consequences ontheir lives.

Hobson,J. A., &ampMcCarley, R. W. (1977).The brain as a dream-stategenerator: An activation-synthesishypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry,134,1335-1348.

Social332

Question1

&nbspArecent survey, which appeared in the Pensacola News Journal, reportsthat barriers still exist in reporting child sex abuse. Rossman(2015) by the support of the Sachs Media Group conducted the internetsurvey for the Lauren’s Kids foundation, using more than 1,000Floridians. The main research question for this survey is to find outthe barriers hindering people from reporting child sexual abuse. Themore than 1,000 population under study consisted of men, women andchildren. The dependent variable in this survey is reporting of childsexual abuse and the independent variables are the various barriersto reporting of child sexual abuse such as stigmatization,embarrassment, rejection and others. The independent variables areordinal since they can be categorizedand be organized in an intrinsicorder in terms of percentage.

Thesurvey findings indicate that many parents fail to report child abusebecause of the fear that the peers may ridicule their children(Rossman, 2015). Others were concerned that children may not have aclear and accurate recall of what happened. Other participants arguedthat the legal process was lengthy while others were concerned on theimpact of such an act on family’s image in the society. The studyimplies that for the current society to feel free to report childsexual abuse a lot is yet to be done. The society, especially, theparents should be enlightened on the psychological and emotionalnegative impacts such an act can have on their children if theydecide to make it a private issue. More public campaigns and forumsshould be conducted to educate and encourage people overcome thevarious obstacles to reporting child abuse and help children who fallvictims.

RossmanS. (2015).Childsex abuse survey confirms problems. PensacolaNews Journal.Retrieved12 June, 2015 from:http://www.pnj.com/story/news/local/community/2015/06/04/child-sex-abuse-survey-confirms-reveals-problems/28467733/Question2

Thebest method to select the caregivers for this study is throughstratified sampling. In stratified sampling the researcher makes thesample as representative as possible, evading the setbacks that couldarise through using a simple random sample. For instance, in thisparticular study, the researcher may choose to divide the caregiversin the selected region of United States into smaller groups such asage, gender, culture and ethnicity. The individuals will then beselected from these groups at random. It might be difficult ingathering a truly random sample in this study since caregivers in theUnited States are diverse in terms of gender, culture, age and races.This means that a random sample may be highly unrepresentativemeaning that the findings of such a study cannot be generalized.

Apeer reviewed article by Topaz&ampDoron (2013), reviewed literature relating to negative attitudesamong caregivers toward elderly patients in acute care settings. Theresearchers discuss a study in which they investigated a group ofIsrael nurses’ understanding of ageing and attitude toward ageingpeople in need of intensive health care. The selected sample ofnurses from one of the largest public hospital in Israel filled theKogan’s Attitudes towards Older People Scale and Palmore’s Factson Ageing Quiz. The findings of the study suggested that the caregivers’ level of understanding of ageing and the problems thatelderly people go through is relatively low. The authors argue thatlevel of understanding is one of the main factors that influencescaregivers’ attitude towards their role and ageing people. Theyconcluded their study by recommending that nurses need to be educatedand trained on ageing and the various problems that aged peopleundergo in order to enhance their understandingon this particular field hence improve their attitude towards theirrole and ageing people.

Topaz,M., &ampDoron, I. (2013) “Nurses’ Attitudes Toward OlderPatients in Acute Care in Israel”&nbspOJIN:The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing&nbspVol.18 No. 2.

Woms400

Theweek focused on two main sections of Brettell&amp Sargent (2013),gender and prehistory, and domestic and public worlds on gender andgender differences. The central opinion of the week’s readingrevolves around how gender has evolved with time and how genderdiffers in the domestic and public worlds. I would support the twoauthors’ argument that during the prehistoric era, there were cleardistinctions between men and women. There were clear roles of eachgender in the society. However, with modernization and education,there is a form of equality between men and women. However, I willsupport Brettell&amp Sargent arguments that even in this currentmodernized society, there are differences in how gender is viewed atthe domestic level and in the public world. At the domestic level, awoman is still expected to be obedient, loyal and submissive to theman. However, in the public sphere for instance at job place, youmight get a woman being a boss to his husband who she is expected torespect and be submissive to. Therefore, gender differences willalways be there and the issue of gender equality will remain acomplex and debatable topic.

Brettell,C., &amp Sargent, C. (2013).Gender in cross-culturalperspective.Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

References

Brettell,C., &amp Sargent, C. (2013).Genderin cross-cultural perspective.UpperSaddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Haney,C., Banks, W. C., &amp Zimbardo, P. G. (1973) A study of prisonersand guards in a simulated prison.NavalResearch Review,30, 4-17.

Hobson,J. A., &ampMcCarley, R. W. (1977).The brain as a dream-stategenerator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.American Journal of Psychiatry, 134,1335-1348.

MasonM &ampGambrill E (1994).&quotShouldthe Use of Corporal Punishment by Parents be Considered Child Abuse?&quotfrom Debating Children`s Lives: Current Controversies on Children andAdolescents, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

RossmanS. (2015).Childsex abuse survey confirms problems. PensacolaNews JournalRetrieved12 June, 2015 from:http://www.pnj.com/story/news/local/community/2015/06/04/child-sex-abuse-survey-confirms-reveals-problems/28467733/

Topaz,M., &ampDoron, I. (2013) “Nurses’ Attitudes Toward OlderPatients in Acute Care in Israel”&nbspOJIN:The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing&nbspVol.18 No. 2.