Watchthe following TED talks.  If you have any problems understandingthe speaker, please note that there is an option to turn on captions(highly suggested!!!). You will likely need to pause thevideo to answer questions, and even back it up to replay importantparts.
Forall assignments, make sure you include the question and your answerwritten below it in a different font color.  Also make sure thatall answers are summarized and not copied and pasted directly fromthe video`s transcript (doing so on even 1 question will result in a0 on the assignment).
Whenyou finished this assignment, save your answers and upload the saveddocument to the appropriate dropbox in D2L. Consult the courseschedule for the appropriate due date.
Talk1: Johan Rockstrom: Let the environment guide our development
1. The speaker shows a graph of varying temperature throughout time. He then points out a stage of stable temperatures?  What is thename of that phase?  What can this phase support that otherscould not?
TheHolocene phase was the only one capable of supporting humandevelopment.
2. The speaker says we are putting a “quadruple squeeze on theplanet?  What are these 4 squeezes?  Briefly describe thesignificance of each of these “squeezes).
Population growth means there are more people that crave for unsustainable lifestyle.
Climate agenda- it is assumed that the stabilization of greenhouse gases at a particular level to prevent temperatures from exceeding a particular level is enough.
Decline in ecosystem- which means that the ecosystem is increasingly incapable of regulating climate in the long-term.
Surprise in the acknowledgement of the dire need for a paradigm shift.
3.The speaker suggests that we may have entered a new geological era. What is that era?  What is its basic characteristic?
The Erais called anthropocene, where human beings are the main drivers ofchange at the planetary level.
4.The speaker suggests that perhaps systems under pressure may tipover, change its state, and a new less desirable state takes over (Iam paraphrasing what he says here…).  He suggests that indeedthat the planet is showing signs of this and points out 2 ecosystemsas examples.  Describe what has happened to one of theseecosystems.
Thetipping point has been demonstrated by the replacement of the hardcoral reef systems by soft corals that are incapable of supportingsocial and economic development. This has also been demonstrated bythe loss of 30-40% of the summer ice cover in The Arctic.
5.The speaker says that research has identified 9 planetary boundaries. What are these 9 boundaries?  Put a star next to the ones wehave already surpassed.
3.Stratospheric ozone depletion
9.Interference of the phosphorous and nitrogen cycles in the planet
6.What does the speaker say we need to invest in in order to achieve atransformative change (note: he mentions 3 things)?
Humanbeings must invest in transformation capability, persistence andadaptability to inevitable change.
7.What massive challenge does the future have?  How does thespeaker say we can meet this challenge?
Feedingthe high number of people in the future (9 billion) is the majorchallenge. This can be met through a green revolution whereagriculture shifts from being a source of greenhouse gasses to asink.
8.The Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom says we can governthe commons if we invest in what 3 things?
Thisnecessitates a shift from fossil dependence, invest in local, trustaction-based partnerships, as well as cross-scale innovations.
Discussionquestion: What did you think about the speakers message?  Doyou agree with his idea of moving forward tranformatively withinthe 9 planetary boundaries?  Will that work?  Give reasonsfor your answer.
Talk2: EdithWidder: Glowing life in an underwater world
What is bioluminescence?What percentage of underwater ocean animals glow?
Bioluminescence is the abilityof animals to glow or produce light. About 80-90% of sea animalsglow.
What are the main 3 things an animal has to do to survive?
Animals have to find food,avoid becoming a prey and attract mates.
What color is the most common color in bioluminescent sea animals?Why?
Blue is the most common forbioluminescence since evolution selected it because it travels thefarthest distance in seawater so as to optimize communication.
Discuss the significance of at least 2 bioluminescent features on the viperfish.
The viperfish slides ingrooves outside its head thereby preventing the teeth from impalingthe brain. It also has jewel-like organs that it uses as camouflageto hide its shadow.
Why does the speaker say anglerfish have different shaped lures?
The different lures are usedby males to recognize females. s
In what way can sea creatures use bioluminescence as defense? Give an example of one shown.
Bioluminescence may be used indistracting or blinding predators so as to allow to swim away.
Within 80 seconds of the electronic jellyfish (on the eye-in-the-sea) flashing, what did they find?
A squid that was more than6-feet long was new to science to the extent that it was not in anyknown scientific family was recorded on the electronic jellyfish.
Discussion Question:Sheends her talk by saying if you ever get to take a dive in asubmersible, say yes. If you had the opportunity, would you do it? What sort of things would you hope to see?
If I was provided with suchan opportunity, I would jump on it.Perhaps the most Ican hope for is to see unknown creatures in their normal lifestyles,perhaps even how they trap their food or even mate.
Talk3: Hans Rosling: Religions and babies
1.Thespeaker shows a graph of world population and another on the numberof children in the world:
What was world population in 1960?
What is population now (or in 2010 when the talk was given)?
In 1950 (when the speaker was born), how many children were in the world?
Today (at time video was produced), how many children are there?
2.At Gapminder (which is a great site by the way to find out lots ofinformation on population), they made a map. Describe the following:
Each country is a bubble. The size of the bubble shows population size.
The color of the bubble shows religion.
How does the speaker define majority religion?
Thisis the religion that takes up more than 50% of the population in thecountry.
What 4 groupings of religion are shown (the 4 colors of bubbles…what religions do they represent?)?
Christians,Muslims, Eastern religion, and unclassified.
3.Thefirst graph that he shows is in 1960. On the x axis (the independentvariable), he shows income and on the y axis (dependent variable), heshows the number of babies born per woman.
Look at the overall trend (ignore the colors of the bubbles). What general relationship do you see between income and # babies per woman?
Individualswith low incomes had more children than those in the high incomegaps.
What is the relationship between religion and # of babies (mention specifically Christianity and Islam)?
In the initial stages, it seemed that religion was a determinantin the number of children per woman since Muslim women had an averageof 7 children each unlike Christian women who had slightly less.
4.Roslingfast-forwards the graph through time. What overall trend is happeningwith the # of babies per woman as we go from 1960s to the present(regardless of income and religion)?
Thenumber of children per woman is reducing in all religions as incomesincrease.
5.Lookingat the graph in 2010:
Is the same relationship between income and # babies per woman still apparent in 2010 as it was in 1960? Explain your answer.
Yes,the relationship between income and the number of babies is stillapparent as countries with high per capita incomes have fewerchildren than their counterparts with low per capital income.
Is the same relationship between religions and # babies per woman still apparent? Explain your answer.
No,there seems to be no relationship between the religion and the numberof babies as the number of children has decreased as income increasedirrespective of the religion.
6.Roslingmentions an extremely important point regarding countries with thefastest population growth. What countries have the fastest populationgrowth? Why?
Countriesthat have the highest mortality rates also have the fastestpopulation growth since the death of one baby is compensated byhaving another.
7.Rosling uses the examples of Senegal and Ghana, as well as Bangladeshand Quatar, as countries that have reduced their fertility rates. Hepoints out 4 important factorsthat it takes for countries to experience such improvement. What arethey?
Thefour factors include a decrease in child mortality rate, eliminationof child labor, provision of education and jobs to women, as well asaccess to family planning.
What world population size does the speaker say we need to plan for by the end of the century? How will this occur if we have already reached “peak child”?
Theworld population size that should be planned for is 10 billion by theend of the century. If the “peak child” is already reached, thepopulation will stagnate at 10 billion people as the old die off andare replaced by the new-born 2 billion children.
9.Noticethat the title of the talk is “Religion and babies”. In the end,what does the speaker say religion has to do with fertility?
Itis evident that religion has little or nothing to do with fertilityand the number of children that a woman eventually has.
DiscussionQuestion: What were youroverall thoughts about this TED talk? What did it teach you aboutfactors that affect fertility rates (# babies per woman)? Were youwere you surprised about what he found regarding religion and babies? Why or why not?
Themain point is that the number of babies a woman has is determined bythe level of education and her access to job. It is surprising thatreligion has little to do with the number of children since I thoughtthere were rules regarding the number of wives and how sexuality inreligious groups.
Discusssome final thoughts you have after watching these talks.You might discuss which talk taught you the most, or made you thinkthe most, or that you found the most interesting You might talk aboutsome things you learned that you did not know before. You could alsotalk about questions you now have after watching these talks. Iexpect this part to be at least 4-5 sentences and show that you havecritically thought about what you just watched.
Thefollowing TED talk is a great talk related to the subject ofpopulation. If you choose to complete it (it is totally optional),you can earn up to 5 extra credit points. If you decide not tocomplete it, just leave the questions blank. I highly suggest youwatch it, however, as it is a really good one!
MechaiViravaidya:How Mr. Condom made Thailand a better
40 years ago, Thailand was a very poor country. What type of program did they begin with to help get them out of poverty?
Theprogram started was a family planning program where contraceptiveswould be dispensed to women.
Summarize the approach that they took to make birth control (e.g., condoms) available to the majority of the population. Give at least 2 examples of what they did.
The approach used involved getting every person on board. Anexample is found in getting religious leaders participating. On thesame note, the police themselves dispensed condoms.
In 2000, after about 25 years of the various efforts/programs of promoting family planning had in effect, what was the average number of children per family in Thailand? What was the country’s population growth rate? How did it compare to 1974, prior to such efforts?
Therewas a drop in the average number of children from a growth rate of3.3 percent or seven children per family in 1974 to 0.5% or 1.5children in 2000.
After HIV/AIDS hit Thailand, Mechai became even further involved in promoting condom use throught Thailand. Discuss at least 2 things that he did to 1) educate the people about HIV/AID and 2) make condoms available to everyone.
Inproviding education, Mechai approached the military and was providedwith access to the radio stations. To get the condoms available toall, Mechai ensured that all individuals including policemen,religious leaders and even hotels had condoms.
Mechai uses humor throughout his talk as a means of taking the stigma off of talking about birth control. Describe at least 2 examples of this from his talk.
Inone instance, Mechai cautions that the condoms that he dispenses areThai-sized, which implied that a different (smaller) size may beneeded for the audience. In addition, he quips that the New Yorkpolice could offer condoms even for one’s mobile phone in the rainyseason, which creates the perception that the condom is a normalthing.
Between 1991-2003, new infections of HIV/AIDS declined what %? How many lives are estimated to have been saved?
Newinfections declined by about 90% with 7.7 million being saved.
How did they try to help get the Thai people out of poverty? Give one example of this.
Mechaiacknowledged that the poor were business people who were deficient ofaccess to funds, in which case they introduced a microcredit programin 1975 that lent money to women practicing family planning.
DiscussionQuestion: Throughout thisvideo, you learned about how Thailand was able to bring both theirbirth rates and HIV rates down. Doyou think that Mechai’s efforts played a significant role inreducing birth rates and reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand?Explain your answer.
Yes.Mechai’s efforts played a crucial role in lowering birth rates andspread of AIDs. This is through the provision of condoms to allpeople even those who could not afford them. Further, the financialincentives always work in motivating individuals to toe the line.