TED Talks Assignment Unit 1

Watchthe following TED talks.&nbsp If you have any problems understandingthe speaker, please note that there is an option to turn on captions(highly suggested!!!). You will likely need to&nbsppause&nbspthevideo to answer questions, and even back it up to replay importantparts. &nbsp

Forall assignments, make sure you include the question and your answerwritten below it in a different font color. &nbspAlso make sure thatall answers are summarized and not copied and pasted directly fromthe video`s transcript (doing so on even 1 question will result in a0 on the assignment).

Whenyou finished this assignment, save your answers and upload the saveddocument to the appropriate dropbox&nbspin D2L. Consult the courseschedule for the appropriate due date.&nbsp

30points

Talk1: Johan Rockstrom: Let the environment guide our development

Link:http://www.ted.com/talks/johan_rockstrom_let_the_environment_guide_our_development?language=en

1.&nbspThe speaker shows a graph of varying temperature throughout time.&nbspHe then points out a stage of stable temperatures?&nbsp What is thename of that phase?&nbsp What can this phase support that otherscould not?&nbsp

&nbsp

TheHolocene phase was the only one capable of supporting humandevelopment.

2.&nbspThe speaker says we are putting a “quadruple squeeze on theplanet?&nbsp What are these 4 squeezes?&nbsp Briefly describe thesignificance of each of these “squeezes).&nbsp

  1. Population growth means there are more people that crave for unsustainable lifestyle.

&nbsp

  1. Climate agenda- it is assumed that the stabilization of greenhouse gases at a particular level to prevent temperatures from exceeding a particular level is enough.

&nbsp

  1. Decline in ecosystem- which means that the ecosystem is increasingly incapable of regulating climate in the long-term.

&nbsp

  1. Surprise in the acknowledgement of the dire need for a paradigm shift.

3.The speaker suggests that we may have entered a new geological era.&nbspWhat is that era?&nbsp What is its basic characteristic?&nbsp&nbsp

The Erais called anthropocene, where human beings are the main drivers ofchange at the planetary level.

&nbsp

4.The speaker suggests that perhaps systems under pressure may tipover, change its state, and a new less desirable state takes over (Iam paraphrasing what he says here…).&nbsp He suggests that indeedthat the planet is showing signs of this and points out 2 ecosystemsas examples.&nbsp Describe what has happened to one of theseecosystems.&nbsp

Thetipping point has been demonstrated by the replacement of the hardcoral reef systems by soft corals that are incapable of supportingsocial and economic development. This has also been demonstrated bythe loss of 30-40% of the summer ice cover in The Arctic.

&nbsp

5.The speaker says that research has identified 9 planetary&nbspboundaries. What are these 9 boundaries?&nbsp Put a star next to the ones wehave already surpassed.

&nbsp

1.Climate

2.Climate Change

3.Stratospheric ozone depletion

4.Ocean Acidification

5.Air pollution

6.Freshwater use

7.Biodiversity loss

8.Carbon sequestration

9.Interference of the phosphorous and nitrogen cycles in the planet

&nbsp

6.What does the speaker say we need to invest in in order to achieve atransformative change (note: he mentions 3 things)?&nbsp

&nbsp Humanbeings must invest in transformation capability, persistence andadaptability to inevitable change.

&nbsp

&nbsp&nbsp

7.What massive challenge does the future have?&nbsp How does thespeaker say we can meet this challenge?&nbsp

Feedingthe high number of people in the future (9 billion) is the majorchallenge. This can be met through a green revolution whereagriculture shifts from being a source of greenhouse gasses to asink.

&nbsp

8.The Nobel Laureate&nbspElinor&nbspOstrom&nbspsays we can governthe commons if we invest in what 3 things?&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbspThisnecessitates a shift from fossil dependence, invest in local, trustaction-based partnerships, as well as cross-scale innovations.

&nbsp

&nbsp

Discussionquestion: What did you think about the&nbspspeakers&nbspmessage?&nbsp Doyou agree with his idea of moving forward tranformatively&nbspwithinthe 9 planetary boundaries?&nbsp Will that work?&nbsp Give reasonsfor your answer. &nbsp&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Talk2: EdithWidder: Glowing life in an underwater world

Link:http://www.ted.com/talks/edith_widder_glowing_life_in_an_underwater_world.html

  1. What is bioluminescence?What percentage of underwater ocean animals glow?

Bioluminescence is the abilityof animals to glow or produce light. About 80-90% of sea animalsglow.

  1. What are the main 3 things an animal has to do to survive?

Animals have to find food,avoid becoming a prey and attract mates.

  1. What color is the most common color in bioluminescent sea animals?Why?

Blue is the most common forbioluminescence since evolution selected it because it travels thefarthest distance in seawater so as to optimize communication.

  1. Discuss the significance of at least 2 bioluminescent features on the viperfish.

The viperfish slides ingrooves outside its head thereby preventing the teeth from impalingthe brain. It also has jewel-like organs that it uses as camouflageto hide its shadow.

  1. Why does the speaker say anglerfish have different shaped lures?

The different lures are usedby males to recognize females. s

  1. In what way can sea creatures use bioluminescence as defense? Give an example of one shown.

Bioluminescence may be used indistracting or blinding predators so as to allow to swim away.

  1. Within 80 seconds of the electronic jellyfish (on the eye-in-the-sea) flashing, what did they find?

A squid that was more than6-feet long was new to science to the extent that it was not in anyknown scientific family was recorded on the electronic jellyfish.

Discussion Question:Sheends her talk by saying if you ever get to take a dive in asubmersible, say yes. If you had the opportunity, would you do it? What sort of things would you hope to see?

If I was provided with suchan opportunity, I would jump on it.Perhaps the most Ican hope for is to see unknown creatures in their normal lifestyles,perhaps even how they trap their food or even mate.

Talk3: Hans Rosling: Religions and babies

Link:http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_religions_and_babies.html

1.Thespeaker shows a graph of world population and another on the numberof children in the world:

  • What was world population in 1960?

Threebillion

  • What is population now (or in 2010 when the talk was given)?

SevenBillion

  • In 1950 (when the speaker was born), how many children were in the world?

Onebillion

  • Today (at time video was produced), how many children are there?

2billion

2.At Gapminder (which is a great site by the way to find out lots ofinformation on population), they made a map. Describe the following:

  • Each country is a bubble. The size of the bubble shows population size.

  • The color of the bubble shows religion.

  • How does the speaker define majority religion?

Thisis the religion that takes up more than 50% of the population in thecountry.

  • What 4 groupings of religion are shown (the 4 colors of bubbles…what religions do they represent?)?

Christians,Muslims, Eastern religion, and unclassified.

3.Thefirst graph that he shows is in 1960. On the x axis (the independentvariable), he shows income and on the y axis (dependent variable), heshows the number of babies born per woman.

  • Look at the overall trend (ignore the colors of the bubbles). What general relationship do you see between income and # babies per woman?

Individualswith low incomes had more children than those in the high incomegaps.

  • What is the relationship between religion and # of babies (mention specifically Christianity and Islam)?

In the initial stages, it seemed that religion was a determinantin the number of children per woman since Muslim women had an averageof 7 children each unlike Christian women who had slightly less.

4.Roslingfast-forwards the graph through time. What overall trend is happeningwith the # of babies per woman as we go from 1960s to the present(regardless of income and religion)?

Thenumber of children per woman is reducing in all religions as incomesincrease.

5.Lookingat the graph in 2010:

  • Is the same relationship between income and # babies per woman still apparent in 2010 as it was in 1960? Explain your answer.

Yes,the relationship between income and the number of babies is stillapparent as countries with high per capita incomes have fewerchildren than their counterparts with low per capital income.

  • Is the same relationship between religions and # babies per woman still apparent? Explain your answer.

No,there seems to be no relationship between the religion and the numberof babies as the number of children has decreased as income increasedirrespective of the religion.

6.Roslingmentions an extremely important point regarding countries with thefastest population growth. What countries have the fastest populationgrowth? Why?

Countriesthat have the highest mortality rates also have the fastestpopulation growth since the death of one baby is compensated byhaving another.

7.Rosling uses the examples of Senegal and Ghana, as well as Bangladeshand Quatar, as countries that have reduced their fertility rates. Hepoints out 4 important factorsthat it takes for countries to experience such improvement. What arethey?

Thefour factors include a decrease in child mortality rate, eliminationof child labor, provision of education and jobs to women, as well asaccess to family planning.

  1. What world population size does the speaker say we need to plan for by the end of the century? How will this occur if we have already reached “peak child”?

Theworld population size that should be planned for is 10 billion by theend of the century. If the “peak child” is already reached, thepopulation will stagnate at 10 billion people as the old die off andare replaced by the new-born 2 billion children.

9.Noticethat the title of the talk is “Religion and babies”. In the end,what does the speaker say religion has to do with fertility?

Itis evident that religion has little or nothing to do with fertilityand the number of children that a woman eventually has.

DiscussionQuestion: What were youroverall thoughts about this TED talk? What did it teach you aboutfactors that affect fertility rates (# babies per woman)? Were youwere you surprised about what he found regarding religion and babies? Why or why not?

Themain point is that the number of babies a woman has is determined bythe level of education and her access to job. It is surprising thatreligion has little to do with the number of children since I thoughtthere were rules regarding the number of wives and how sexuality inreligious groups.

AssignmentSummary:

Discusssome final thoughts you have after watching these talks.You might discuss which talk taught you the most, or made you thinkthe most, or that you found the most interesting You might talk aboutsome things you learned that you did not know before. You could alsotalk about questions you now have after watching these talks. Iexpect this part to be at least 4-5 sentences and show that you havecritically thought about what you just watched.

EXTRACREDIT OPTION:

Thefollowing TED talk is a great talk related to the subject ofpopulation. If you choose to complete it (it is totally optional),you can earn up to 5 extra credit points. If you decide not tocomplete it, just leave the questions blank. I highly suggest youwatch it, however, as it is a really good one!

MechaiViravaidya:How Mr. Condom made Thailand a better

Link:http://www.ted.com/talks/mechai_viravaidya_how_mr_condom_made_thailand_a_better_place.html

  1. 40 years ago, Thailand was a very poor country. What type of program did they begin with to help get them out of poverty?

Theprogram started was a family planning program where contraceptiveswould be dispensed to women.

  1. Summarize the approach that they took to make birth control (e.g., condoms) available to the majority of the population. Give at least 2 examples of what they did.

The approach used involved getting every person on board. Anexample is found in getting religious leaders participating. On thesame note, the police themselves dispensed condoms.

  1. In 2000, after about 25 years of the various efforts/programs of promoting family planning had in effect, what was the average number of children per family in Thailand? What was the country’s population growth rate? How did it compare to 1974, prior to such efforts?

Therewas a drop in the average number of children from a growth rate of3.3 percent or seven children per family in 1974 to 0.5% or 1.5children in 2000.

  1. After HIV/AIDS hit Thailand, Mechai became even further involved in promoting condom use throught Thailand. Discuss at least 2 things that he did to 1) educate the people about HIV/AID and 2) make condoms available to everyone.

Inproviding education, Mechai approached the military and was providedwith access to the radio stations. To get the condoms available toall, Mechai ensured that all individuals including policemen,religious leaders and even hotels had condoms.

  1. Mechai uses humor throughout his talk as a means of taking the stigma off of talking about birth control. Describe at least 2 examples of this from his talk.

Inone instance, Mechai cautions that the condoms that he dispenses areThai-sized, which implied that a different (smaller) size may beneeded for the audience. In addition, he quips that the New Yorkpolice could offer condoms even for one’s mobile phone in the rainyseason, which creates the perception that the condom is a normalthing.

  1. Between 1991-2003, new infections of HIV/AIDS declined what %? How many lives are estimated to have been saved?

Newinfections declined by about 90% with 7.7 million being saved.

  1. How did they try to help get the Thai people out of poverty? Give one example of this.

Mechaiacknowledged that the poor were business people who were deficient ofaccess to funds, in which case they introduced a microcredit programin 1975 that lent money to women practicing family planning.

DiscussionQuestion: Throughout thisvideo, you learned about how Thailand was able to bring both theirbirth rates and HIV rates down. Doyou think that Mechai’s efforts played a significant role inreducing birth rates and reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand?Explain your answer.

Yes.Mechai’s efforts played a crucial role in lowering birth rates andspread of AIDs. This is through the provision of condoms to allpeople even those who could not afford them. Further, the financialincentives always work in motivating individuals to toe the line.

TED Talks Assignment Unit 1

TEDTalks Assignment Unit 1

Talk1: Johan Rockstrom: Let the environment guide our development

1.&nbspThe speaker shows a graph of varying temperature throughout time.&nbspHe then points out a stage of stable temperatures?&nbsp What is thename of that phase?&nbsp What can this phase support that otherscould not?&nbsp

&nbspHolecenephase-a phase which could support human life

2.&nbspThe speaker says we are putting a “quadruple squeeze on theplanet?&nbsp What are these 4 squeezes?&nbsp Briefly describe thesignificance of each of these “squeezes).&nbsp

  • Increasing human population

  • Climate change

  • Declining of the ecosystem

  • Abrupt and irreversible change of the ecosystem

3.The speaker suggests that we may have entered a new geological era.&nbspWhat is that era?&nbsp What is its basic characteristic?&nbsp&nbsp

Anthropocene-change is mainly driven by humans

4.The speaker suggests that perhaps systems under pressure may tipover, change its state, and a new less desirable state takes over (Iam paraphrasing what he says here…).&nbsp He suggests that indeedthat the planet is showing signs of this and points out 2 ecosystemsas examples.&nbsp Describe what has happened to one of theseecosystems.&nbsp

Emergenceof the soft corals as a result of loss of resilience in the coralreef system

5.The speaker says that research has identified 9 planetary&nbspboundaries. What are these 9 boundaries?&nbsp Put a star next to the ones wehave already surpassed.

  • Depletion of the ozone layer

  • Acidification of the ocean

  • Climate change

  • Air pollution

  • Destabilization of the phosphorous and nitrogen cycle

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Changes in the land use

  • Sequestration of carbon

  • Biomass regulation

&nbsp6.What does the speaker say we need to invest in in order to achieve atransformative change (note: he mentions 3 things)?&nbsp

  • Persistence

  • Transformative capabilities

  • Adaptability

7.What massive challenge does the future have?&nbsp How does thespeaker say we can meet this challenge?&nbsp

Foodsustainability

Adoptingthe green technology

8.The Nobel Laureate&nbspElinor&nbspOstrom&nbspsays we can governthe commons if we invest in what 3 things?&nbsp

  • Development-conscious partnerships

  • Innovations at various institutions

  • Trust

&nbspDiscussionquestion: What did you think about the&nbspspeakers&nbspmessage?&nbsp Doyou agree with his idea of moving forward tranformatively&nbspwithinthe 9 planetary boundaries?&nbsp Will that work?&nbsp Give reasonsfor your answer. &nbsp&nbsp

&nbsp Thespeaker generally expresses optimism that there is indeed a brightfuture if we adapt transformative change. While the idea oftransformative change seems viable, it is quite a challenge toimplement. The main reason why such an idea cannot work is thedifficulty in attaining a universal, global response to the currentchallenge.

&nbsp

Talk2: EdithWidder: Glowing life in an underwater world

  1. What is bioluminescence? What percentage of underwater ocean animals glows?

  • The emission of light by animals

  • 80-90%

  1. What are the main 3 things an animal has to do to survive?

    • Avoid being predated upon

    • Locate food

    • Look for mates

  1. What color is the most common color in bioluminescent sea animals? Why?

Blue-itis the color that travels faster and far inside the ocean-hastenscommunication

  1. Discuss the significance of at least 2 bioluminescent features on the viperfish.

  • Light emitting organs at the belly for camouflaging purposes

  • The jaw used for luring preys

  1. Why does the speaker say anglerfish have different shaped lures?

Becausethe lures are used for attracting males and a female anglerfish maybe attached to multiple males at the same time.

  1. In what way can sea creatures use bioluminescence as defense? Give an example of one shown.

  • By releasing the luciferin for the purpose of distracting the predator

  • An example is that of a shrimp releasing luciferin as a self defense mechanism when approached by the viper fish.

  1. Within 80 seconds of the electronic jellyfish (on the eye-in-the-sea) flashing, what did they find?

Asix foot long squid that has never been discovered by scientists

DiscussionQuestion: Sheends her talk by saying if you ever get to take a dive in asubmersible, say yes. If you had the opportunity, would you do it? What sort of things would you hope to see?

Yes,I would very much want to experience the deep sea adventure. I would particularly be interested in the biolumiscent process as itoccurs in the jellyfish-I bet it must be spectacular!

Talk3: Hans Rosling: Religions and babies

  1. The speaker shows a graph of world population and another on the number of children in the world:

Whatwas world population in 1960?

Threebilllion

Whatis population now (or in 2010 when the talk was given)?

Sevenbillion

In1950 (when the speaker was born), how many children were in theworld?

Lessthan one billion

Today(at time video was produced), how many children are there?

Twobillion

  1. At Gapminder (which is a great site by the way to find out lots of information on population), they made a map. Describe the following:

  • Each country is a bubble. The size of the bubble shows ___population

  • The color of the bubble shows _major religion

  • How does the speaker define majority religion?

Religionsubscribed by more than half of the entire population

What4 groupings of religion are shown (the 4 colors of bubbles…whatreligions do they represent?)?

Christianity

Islam

Religionof the Eastern part of the world

Uncategorized

  1. The first graph that he shows is in 1960. On the x axis (the independent variable), he shows income and on the y axis (dependent variable), he shows the number of babies born per woman.

  • Look at the overall trend (ignore the colors of the bubbles). What general relationship do you see between income and # babies per woman?

  • As the incomes increases, the number of babies per woman decreases

  • What is the relationship between religion and # of babies (mention specifically Christianity and Islam)?

  • For Christians, only rich Christians could have few babies. For Muslims, the level of income did not matter as most had 6-7 babies

  1. Rosling fast-forwards the graph through time. What overall trend is happening with the # of babies per woman as we go from 1960s to the present (regardless of income and religion)?

Allthe countries regardless of income and religion are averaging twochildren per woman

  1. Looking at the graph in 2010:

  • Is the same relationship between income and # babies per woman still apparent in 2010 as it was in 1960? Explain your answer.

  • No, unlike back then, it is now possible to have few children regardless of the level of income. Before, only rich families had few babies

  • Is the same relationship between religions and # babies per woman still apparent? Explain your answer.

No,the number of babies in all the major religions is pretty much thesame unlike in the past.

  1. Rosling mentions an extremely important point regarding countries with the fastest population growth. What countries have the fastest population growth? Why?

Countrieswith the highest mortality rate such as those in Africa-because ofthe need to replace those who have died.

  1. Rosling uses the examples of Senegal and Ghana, as well as Bangladesh and Quatar, as countries that have reduced their fertility rates. He points out 4 important factors that it takes for countries to experience such improvement. What are they?

    • Getting out of poverty

    • Family planning access

    • Education of women

    • Increased survival of children

    • Inclusion of more women in the workforce

  1. What world population size does the speaker say we need to plan for by the end of the century? How will this occur if we have already reached “peak child”?

Tenbillion-it will only occur if the poverty level decreases, childrensurvival rate improves, and countries adopt family planning measures.

  1. Notice that the title of the talk is “Religion and babies”. In the end, what does the speaker say religion has to do with fertility?

Thespeaker concludes that religion does not play any role on the numberof babies born.

DiscussionQuestion: What were your overall thoughts about this TED talk? What did it teach you about factors that affect fertility rates (#babies per woman)? Were you were you surprised about what he foundregarding religion and babies? Why or why not?

TheTED talk was very interesting. Although much of the informationhighlighted in the talk has always been available, it has never beenpresented in an interesting manner. The only information which hassurprised me is that religion does not affect fertility.

AssignmentSummary:

Discusssome final thoughts you have after watching these talks. Youmight discuss which talk taught you the most, or made you think themost, or that you found the most interesting You might talk aboutsome things you learned that you did not know before. You could alsotalk about questions you now have after watching these talks. Iexpect this part to be at least 4-5 sentences and show that you havecritically thought about what you just watched.

Basically,all these talks had something new to offer. However, some were moreinteresting than the others. For instance, I found the talk onreligion and babies to be pretty much engaging. I must admit that thespeaker demonstrated his presentational skills by making use ofanecdotes, statistics and scientific proofs. While I knew that incomehad something to do with babies, I never knew that religion had aneffect on the number of babies. I would also like to know whether itis possible to culture the luciferins on a large scale basis assource of domestic light. I guess it might be an interesting venture.

EXTRACREDIT OPTION:

Thefollowing TED talk is a great talk related to the subject ofpopulation. If you choose to complete it (it is totally optional),you can earn up to 5 extra credit points. If you decide not tocomplete it, just leave the questions blank. I highly suggest youwatch it, however, as it is a really good one!

MechaiViravaidya:How Mr. Condom made Thailand a better

  1. 40 years ago, Thailand was a very poor country. What type of program did they begin with to help get them out of poverty?

  • a birth control program aimed at reducing the rate of population growth

  1. Summarize the approach that they took to make birth control (e.g., condoms) available to the majority of the population. Give at least 2 examples of what they did.

  • Trained the shopkeepers in the villages who would then advise the people on birth control measures

  • Involved religion by getting the monk to bless the birth control tools

  • Trained teachers through competitions

  1. In 2000, after about 25 years of the various efforts/programs of promoting family planning had in effect, what was the average number of children per family in Thailand? What was the country’s population growth rate? How did it compare to 1974, prior to such efforts?

Theaverage number of children dropped from 7 to 1.5. Additionally, therate of population growth decreased from 3.3% to 0.5%.

  1. After HIV/AIDS hit Thailand, Mechai became even further involved in promoting condom use throught Thailand. Discuss at least 2 things that he did to 1) educate the people about HIV/AID and 2) make condoms available to everyone.

  • Approached the military so that he could use their radio to educate people about HIV/AIDS

  • Trained the media on HIV/AIDS

  • Introduced AIDS education in the curriculum

  • Availed condoms to taxi drivers, traffic police for the purposes of redistribution

  1. Mechai uses humor throughout his talk as a means of taking the stigma off of talking about birth control. Describe at least 2 examples of this from his talk.

  • When he warns the audience that the condoms he will give out are plus-sized

  • When he comments about the captain condom who had an MBA and says that “this is probably the best thing he has ever done with his MBA”

  1. Between 1991-2003, new infections of HIV/AIDS declined what %? How many lives are estimated to have been saved?

  • 90%

  • million

  1. How did they try to help get the Thai people out of poverty? Give one example of this.

  • Through microcredit funding for the purpose of promoting entrepreneurship

DiscussionQuestion: Throughout this video, you learned about how Thailandwas able to bring both their birth rates and HIV rates down. Do youthink that Mechai’s efforts played a significant role in reducingbirth rates and reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand? Explainyour answer.

Evidently,Mr. Mechai played a crucial role in bringing down the rate ofpopulation growth and new HIV infection. His efforts paid off asthere was a tremendous reduction in the number of children per familyfrom 7 to 1.5. Moreover, there was a 90% reduction in the rate of HIVinfection thanks to Mechai’s coordinated efforts.