Utilization of GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities

Utilization of GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities 65

Utilizationof GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities

Abstract

Thethesis aims at establishing GIS as a necessity in electric utilities.It does this by looking at the various major issues dealt with in thegeneration, distribution and transmission of electric power over agiven geographical region. Understanding these three concepts isfollowed by creating a need for a smart system that increases theefficiency of the processes involved, as well as reducing the effortrequired in accomplishing them.

Thereason for the research and accompanying thesis is to show theavailability of GIS as a reliable system in the field of electricutilities. It is also meant to enlighten electrical companies dealingwith distribution and transmission of power and that are yet toimplement any smart system along their path of work. Through thethesis and research, they can understand the advantages as well asdisadvantages of GIS. They also get to know the reasons why theyshould implement this system in their daily routines of work.

Theabove mentioned will be achieved through intensive research on GISand its use in various electric fields. Moreover, various utilitieswill be studied across geographical regions so as to capture reliabledata. GIS simulation will be done for a sample electrical company,comparing the efficiencies of having and failing to have this system.After that, recommendations will be issued on the best ways toutilize the system for optimization. It is expected that the resultsof the comparison will bring out a higher efficiency in a systemusing GIS than the one that does not implement such a system.

Theimportance of this research is that it will assist companies dealingwith electric utilities to improve their efficiency and approximatetheir costs appropriately before beginning a project. They will alsomanage to analyze their networks from a central point, improve ontheir customer service and detect the theft of electrical equipment.The knowledge of GIS and its implementation will also assist thesecompanies in the location of appropriate geographical sites for thecreation of substations. Moreover, they will establish the optimalroute for power lines by the help of this system.

Contents

Abstract 2

List of Abbreviations 6

List of Terminologies 7

List of Figures 8

List of Tables 8

Introduction 9

Research Objective 11

Literature Review 11

GIS Overview 11

Applications of GIS 12

GIS in Land Management 12

GIS in Vegetation Management 13

GIS in Emergency Management 13

GIS in Environmental Management 14

The Working of GIS 14

GIS in Electric Distribution 17

The Common Information Model 19

GIS in Electric Transmission 19

GIS and Customer Service in Electric Utilities 22

GIS Engineering Analysis 24

Some of the Integration Solutions Already in Use 26

Research and Data Collected 27

Analysis of the Collected Data – A Comparison of a utility with and without GIS 41

The Public Electricity Corporation in Yemen 41

Before GIS 41

After GIS 49

Implementation of GIS and its Implications – Comparing the Efficiencies of the two 57

Implications of Having GIS in an Electric Utility 60

Conclusion. 61

References 64

List of Abbreviations

GIS– Geographic Information System

AEP– American Electric Power

NYPA– New York Power Authority

COPEL– Companhia Paranaense de Energia

CAD– Computer-aided Design

GPS– Global Positioning System

DMS– Distribution Management System

CIM– Common Information System

IEC– International Electrochemical Commission

CCAPI– Control Center Application Programming Interface

EPRI– Electric Power Research Institute

SDSFIE– Spatial Data Standard for Facilities Infrastructure andEnvironment

GTC– Georgia Transmission Corporation

PC– Personal Computer

GISEL- Geographic Information Systems Electricity of Lebanon

TAMIS- Transmission Asset Management Information System

BELCO- Bermuda Electric Light Company Limited

OMS– Outage Management System

CM– Collection Management

EnBW- Energie Baden-Wurttemberg AG

T&ampTEC- Trinidad &amp Tobago Electric Commission

PEC– Public Electricity Corporation

List of Terminologies

GeographicInformation System – a system that uses digitized mapping to getrelevant information that can be utilized in understanding geographicregions.

Electricutilities – companies that deal with the generation, transmissionand distribution of electricity.

Right-of-way– an appropriate path

Aerialphotography – taking of pictures from above

Poweroutages – blackouts and electric downtime

Feederconnectivity – Connection to an electric power supply

Encroachment– Taking over an environment

Hydroelectricpower – Power generated from the flow of water

Indexvariable – a changing pointer

Ethereal– airborne photography

Topography– geographical landscape

List of Figures

Figure 1 GIS 3D modelling that helped GTC gain permit of setting up a powerline through a part of a forest 21

Figure 2: BELCO incident survey 29

Figure 3: BELCO GIS and data for Bermuda 30

Figure 4: Yemen electricity consumption by year 41

Figure 5: Rate of response to power outages 43

Figure 6: Predicted response to power outages with GIS implementation 51

Figure 7: General usage of income before GIS 58

Figure 8: General usage of income after GIS 58

List of Tables

Table 1: Various GIS systems 17

Table 2: Attempted and successful electric equipment vandalisms 42

Table 3: Projected attempts and successful vandalisms with GIS implementation 49

Table 4: Customer satisfaction with and without GIS in the electric utility 55

Introduction

Thedeveloping interest in the use of technology has revolutionized manyindustries. The thesis was written to show the importance of havingtechnology in electric utilities in terms of changing thetraditionally used mapping systems. For many years, countries andtheir electrical companies have relied on paper maps to state thelocation of their electric utilities. The same maps indicate the typeof structures available or that were installed, and the dates of theinstallations. They guide engineers in understanding the distributionof the utilities, as well as the transmission of power to consumers.

However,these mapping systems do not provide real-time maintenance for theelectric utilities. They require a lot of work that begins withstudying maps, then travelling to sites and along transmission linesfor troubleshooting purposes. Consumers also have to call in forcases of disconnected or interrupted power supply, which can only beresolved after a series of troubleshooting tests to identify thecause of the trouble. Theft of the highly expensive electricalequipment such as transformers is also detected late and leads tolosses for the side of the company involved. The cons of having papermaps as the most dependable source of information on electricalutilities are many. They adversely affect the electrical companiesand their customers as they cut on the efficiency in utilization ofelectric power.

GISsystems came into existence to counter these negative effects ofpaper maps (Davis, 2001). They also reduce the amount of workrequired in the successful analysis and monitoring of geographicalregions. The GIS system helps in the understanding of geographicalregions through digitized analysis that is highly reliable. It givesaccurate data that can be used in the deployment, implementation andmaintenance of electric utilities (Bodenhamer, Corrigan, &ampHarris, 2010).

GISis currently being adopted by many electrical companies because ithas proven to be one of the best means of cutting on costs. It alsoallows for the proper utilization of available resources in terms ofequipment, facilities, and personnel (Maidment, 2002). The system hasreduced the need of stationing engineers in various parts along thetransmission lines as the whole grid can be monitored from a centralposition. An added advantage that comes with the adoption of thisamazing system in electric utilities is the increased revenues. Theseadded revenues are due to reduced cost of operations, as the systemtakes over most of the duties of monitoring the electrical network.As such, the research focuses on the advantages of having a GISsystem in electric utilities as opposed to using any other systems.

Oneof the developing countries that has developed from the use of papermaps to the utilization of the GIS is Yemen in Africa. The country,under the Yemen Power Company, has implemented the GIS systemthroughout its electrical network, from generation to transmissionand distribution. The result is well monitored lines whose breakageis immediately noted. Customer care in terms of repairs and sortingout outages is also done at faster rates than in their previoussystem, and this has seen the company’s revenues and operationsimprove with time.

Research Objective

Theobjective of this research is to review the use of GIS systems inelectric utilities and to prove the efficiency and advantages ofthese systems. Proof will be provided through a thorough comparisonand analysis of electric utilities with and without GIS systems aspart of their operations. The research works on the hypothesis thatelectric utilities under a GIS system are more efficient than thoseworking under any other systems.

Literature ReviewGIS Overview

TheGeographic Information System, abbreviated as GIS, is a mappingcomputer system. It enables one to model and analyze data within asingle geographical database. The modern technological developmentshave seen a rise in the use of GIS as an essential tool in solvingproblems. It is used by governments, individuals, institutions andorganizations in their daily activities (Meehan, 2013). GIS givesgeographical references that enable the users identify and locatefeatures on the surface of planet earth. Analysis of these features,as well as their trends and patterns, can give information that iscrucial in various networks such as electrical, sewerage,transportation and political networks (Maguire, Smith, &ampKouyoumjian, 2008).

Theworld is dynamic and complex in terms of its formation, alignment andarrangement of geographical features. The development of man-madestructures demands an understanding in geographical information. Thespatial information can assist in comprehension of the complexintertwining of human beings and existing natural resources invarious avenues of interaction. The relational information is crucialto the development of countries and economies (Meehan, 2013). Assuch, GIS can be described as any information system working ongeographic information through editing, analysis, integration andstorage. The technology is achieved through the use of GISapplications that are easily available tools developed to enablespatial information analysis. They also incorporate interactivequeries and manipulate maps to generate relevant information (Nag &ampSengputa, 2007).

Applications of GIS

Thereare numerous applications of the Geographic Information Systems. Tounderstand these applications, it is important to understand theelectric utility management, as well as the link that GIS providesbetween the many information systems present in huge companies. Theseapplications vary with electric utilities. They are implemented asmanagement tools that improve electric utilities by providingfinancial, engineering, construction planning and engineeringsolutions. These applications are in the fields of land management,vegetation management, emergency management and environmentalmanagement.

GIS in Land Management

Theuse of paper maps in surveys, setting of land boundaries anddetermining the extent of real estate expansion is no longerefficient. The use of GIS in managing of real estate property hasbeen a successful venture in which American Electric Power (AEP) hasindulged in. The company has moved all its records to digital formatsand the amount of work required in filed surveys before the sale ofland has been reduced. The storage of boundary information in aneasily available and reliable digital format makes it easy and cheapto monitor and manage real state property. Through GIS, the companyhas managed to distribute their land and property information to realestate agents and legal personnel through their internal network.

GIS in Vegetation Management

Themanagement of vegetation comes into play when mapping out theright-of-way for power lines. The importance of this management, andthe effect of vegetation on electric utilities, is evident in theAugust 2003 blackout that took place in America. The major blackoutwas caused by the contact of trees with transmission lines. Itprompted the New York Power Authority to implement a GIS system thatcan prevent a repeat of the same. The system is in charge of theprotection of 1,400 miles of circuits consisting of high voltagetransmission lines. The system incorporates both environmental andelectric features to manage the right-of-way for over 16,000 acres.The system uses GPS technologies and aerial photography to provideeffective mapping that is updated in real time. It is contrary to thetraditional maps that could not keep up with the ever-changingvegetation. The GIS system has also been used in the management oftreatment using herbicides, and has saved the New York PowerAuthority a lot of money that would have otherwise been spent intraditional treatment methods.

GIS in Emergency Management

GISsystems have been utilized in disaster management and support as wasseen in when Hurricane Isabel struck in September 2003. Dominion’sGIS was built to monitor and manage power outages, as well as keeptabs on feeder connectivity. It was also meant to manage thecompany’s assets. When the disaster struck, more than half ofVirginia and North Carolina electric customers lost their powersupply. The GIS system was used in restoring power to its customersand supporting the response to this disaster. Within a fortnight, theGIS technology as implemented by Dominion had been used 650,000 timesin the recovery from the disaster by providing relevant information.

GIS in Environmental Management

GIScan be implemented to support the development of environments andprotect them from human encroachment, as well as natural destruction.The Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL) is a large electricutility in Brazil. It uses GIS to plan how it interacts with itssurroundings. To comply with Brazil’s law of protecting theenvironment from pollution and erosion, and promoting agrarianfertility, COPEL uses GIS to keep its activities in check. The GISensures that this company positively interacts with the environment.It also helps them plan for the development of hydroelectric plantsby considering their effects on the environment, health andgeographical region at large. The GIS put in place monitors dams anddirects the company on proper relocation strategies and dammanagement.

The Working of GIS

Agood and reliable GIS system relates information that is completelyout of phase by the use of a key index variable. The variable islocation. Locations can be expressed as factors of space and time andrecorded as results of dates, times, and x, y, and z coordinates asper the longitude, latitude, and elevation of the location.

Thecurrent GIS technologies make use of digital information. Severaldigitized methods of creation of data are utilized. A hard copy mapof a region is converted to digital form and stored in a digitalmedium by the use of software such as CAD, and this is a highlyutilized procedure of data creation. Ortho-rectified imagery ishighly available and works with images from aircraft, satellites, andUAV`s to make heads-up digitizing the main avenue for extraction ofgeographic data. This form of digitizing involves the use of aerialimagery to trace geographic data directly instead of the traditionalmethod of using a digitizing tablet to trace the geographic form. Thetraditional method is known as the heads-down digitizing (Pennwell,1990).

Therefore,it is evident that GIS uses the key index variable of space-timelocation for all other information. Hence, GIS can relate informationthat would have been deemed unrelated, just as a numbers or textrelational database can relate several different tables. GIS doesthis by the use of common key index variables. The key in question isspace-time extent or the location.

Spatialinformation creates an incredible relationship in various real-worldoccurrences. It can also be utilized in past and future projectionsfor data analysis, interpretation and representation. The fact thatGIS can be used for these purposes has opened new avenues of inquiryinto patterns of the real world, as well as its behaviors that werepreviously uncorrelated.

GISprecision relies on source information, and how it is encoded to beinformation referenced. Land surveyors have possessed the capacity togive an abnormal state of positional exactness using theGPS-determined positions. High-determination advanced territory andairborne symbolism, effective PCs and Web innovation are changing thequality, utility, and desires of GIS. These changes are meant toserve communities on a stupendous scale, yet by and by there areother sources of information that have an effect on the general GISexactness like paper maps. However, these may be of constrained usein accomplishing the coveted precision since the maturing of mapsinfluences their dimensional steadiness.

Inbuilding up an advanced GIS database on topographies, geographicalmaps are the primary source. Ethereal photography and satellitesymbolism are additional hotspots for gathering information andrecognizing traits which can be mapped in layers more than an areacopy of scale. The size of a guide and topographical rendering rangerepresentation sort are imperative angles. Keeping in mind the endgoal to digitize a guide, the guide must be checked insidehypothetical measurements, then filtered into a raster configuration.Coming about raster information must be given a hypotheticalmeasurement by an elastic distorting innovation process.

Aquantitative investigation of maps brings precision issues into coreinterest (Decker, 2000). The electronic and other hardware used tomake estimations for GIS is significantly more exact than themachines of customary guide examination. All land information arecharacteristically wrong, and these mistakes will be solved throughGIS techniques were previously unachievable.

Theadvancement of open source GIS programming has a long programminghistory—a long custom with the presence of a first framework in1978. Various frameworks are accessible which cover all areas ofgeospatial information taking care of.

Someopen-source desktop GIS projects include:

GIS

Comments

GRASS GIS

A complete GIS initially developed by US Army Corps of Engineers

ILWIS

GIS that integrates vector, image and thematic info.

gvSIG

Java-written GIS. Run on various Operating Systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X)

JUMP GIS

Another product of Java

MapWindow GIS

An application software used in programming and runs on desktops

QGIS

Runs on various Operating Systems, just like gvSIG

SAGA GIS

A hybrid system with a wide variety of geoscientific methods

uDig

A java GIS with API and source code

FalconView

Product of Georgia Tech Research Institute. A mapping system.

Kalypso

Java and GML3 system mainly used in water management simulations

Capaware

C++ 3D GIS platform that allows for graphical analysis.

TerraView

Vector and raster data handler in geo-relational databases

Whitebox GAT

GIS software that can run across many platforms and Operating Systems.

Table1: Various GIS systems

GIS in Electric Distribution

Anelectric distribution company uses a system of physical offices togive the resource of electricity to clients associated with thoseoffices all through a land range (Nag, 2008). Every part of thedistribution framework has a physical area and related information.So does every client. So as to arrange, develop, keep up, work anddeal with the electric distribution system, it is important to make,oversee and use this geospatial information (Korte, 2001). A GIS is ahelpful and effective approach to gather, compose, keep up and dealwith this geospatial information and showcase it on a geographicguide.

Acomplete, point by point electric circuit network model is vital forarranging and working the electric system. The capacity toeffortlessly keep up the integration model is a foundation of MilsoftGeographic Information arrangements. Milsoft Geographic Informationarrangements incorporate task administration apparatuses to empowerevery client to make his or her own forms of the model depending onhow they want to carry out their occupations.

MilsoftGIS is being utilized by practically 200 electric distributionutilities. An essential thought in their picking it was thesimplicity of making and keeping up a completely electric systemnetwork that is coordinated flawlessly. It is done with the aid ofMilsoft Engineering Analysis and Milsoft Outage Management System(Meehan, 2013).

MilsoftGeographic Information arrangements are indispensable segments ofMilsoft E&ampO, a thorough arrangement of utilizations andinformation administration for designing and operations of anelectric conveyance framework.

Thereis very high competition in the distribution of electricity throughthe exchange of system information. Distribution models require largedata models that can have up to 10 million objects. Their uniqueinformation models require a lot of accounting and tracking in termsof electricity distribution. Distribution systems have a distributionmanagement system (DMS) that works with the interaction of severalsystems. These systems include an outage management system, ageographic information system, customer information systems, andsystems to track maintenance of the transmission lines. Moreover, thedelivery of the electricity to customers needs to be monitored.

Thedistribution systems are more complex than the transmission ones.Many changes occur in distribution systems, and maintenance has tokeep track of these changes. Therefore, a flexible DMS needs to beimplemented so as to cope with these changes. It increases thecomplexity of distribution systems and subsystems. These systemsrequire appropriate software packages, and can be problematic when itcomes to sharing information across departments. As such a standardsystem needs to be implemented so as to streamline the sharing ofinformation throughout the distribution management system. One ofsuch reliable models is the Common Information Model (CIM) that hasbeen standardized by the International Electrochemical Commission(IEC).

The Common Information Model

Themodel was developed for the Control Center Application ProgramInterface (CCAPI). The development was done by the Electric PowerResearch Institute (EPRI). It allows for the exchange of informationbetween computer systems and, therefore, integrates the businesssector and control center operations. The model is applied indistribution systems and can be extended to give information on theflow of the load along power lines.

Otherdata models include the ESRI that works with computer-aided design(CAD) and GIS to manage infrastructure and maintain electricdistribution. The Spatial Data Standard for Facilities,Infrastructure, and the Environment (SDSFIE) is also another modelthat utilizes either CAD or GIS features. It was developed by the USDepartment of Defense.

GIS in Electric Transmission

Powercompanies have another instrument for drawing closer the difficultiesof transmission line siting. Open web guide administrations, forexample, Google Earth and Yahoo! Maps have made essential mappinguseful and basic information layers accessible to basically everyonewho associates with the Web. On the other hand, GIS innovationupgrades the systems power suppliers’ utilization to considervariables in their line siting procedures. It is a method for gettingto and sharing related geographic information (Meehan, 2007).

Serverinnovation and lightweight online GIS administrations permit clientsto get a wide mixed bag of information sources and to analyze a widerange of information connections connected with transmission linesiting assignments. Also, GIS keeps on profiting these tasks bygiving a structure to demonstrating, line siting, areaadministration, and all periods of transmission line administration.

Currentonline GIS abilities set the stage for another point of view, achange of mentality, about bringing web guide administrations intothe professional workplace. GIS server innovation permits engineersto effortlessly outline official dashboards for administration thatpermit uncomplicated information access. Information customers canpicture exceptional foundation information, load administration,force request, blackout data, area leases, and schematics (Harder,1999). These features help them rapidly recognize system efficienciesand open doors for transmission line development.

OpenAdministration Organization of New Mexico has unlimited informationassets that it draws on for its transmission siting ventures. Theseincorporate high-determination airborne photography, advanced risemodels, satellite information, hillshades and georeferenced outputs.Joining these picture layers, designers can evaluate area forms andmodel different passageway situations. The Public Service of NewMexico worked with Force Engineers Inc. to create and execute anonline programming application based on ESRI`s ArcGIS stage thatbacks high-voltage transmission line implementation. The onlineapplication can either be associated with the system in the workplaceor detached in the field. It incorporates ongoing guiding andfollowing, online examination of structure data, an issue areaapparatus, and coordination of a few layers of base data. It also hasan assessment and support module, and a reporting capability. Theapplication additionally can show current ecological and right-of-wayinformation that is essential in routing power lines.

Thegenerally utilized EPRI-GTC Siting Technique composed by the ElectricForce Examination Foundation is being utilized by GeorgiaTransmission Corporation (GTC). The electric company is utilizing anaugmentation to ArcGIS composed by Photograph Science calledPassageway Examiner 9. The product underpins every progression of thesiting approach`s thorough techniques for reporting and reliablyapplying arranging presumptions, assessment criteria and choices. GISeffectively coordinates with the technique for breaking down thecomponents of suitability surfaces for common, building and man-madeconditions. It is utilized to guide every single geographic componentinside of a region of interest and offers representation ofpassageway choices.

Figure1 GIS 3D modelling that helped GTC gain permit of setting up apowerline through a part of a forest

Thechoice procedure utilizes ArcGIS to distinguish full scale routes,characterize the undertaking range limits, recognize the optionpassages inside of the large scale paths, and select a favoredcourse. The product maps every geographic component in a study zoneand appoints numerical suitability qualities to all components.Components, for example, open area, agribusiness and wetlands arepositioned from 1 (most suitable) to 9 (minimum suitable). Utilizingthe cell values, a PC calculation computes ideal ways for three sortsof suitability surfaces: situating with existing transmission lines,situating with existing street privileges of way, and intersectionless created ranges. The ideal ways distinguished are called fullscale passages. The model makes reports that incorporate maps,connected criteria portrayals and expense suggestions. Positions andweights are computed for every option, and the siting group positionsevery option course.

GIS and Customer Service in Electric Utilities

Clientconsideration is a noteworthy business transformer inside of electricservice organizations. The way to exceptional client consideration isincorporated data. Since such a large amount of what is important toclients identifies with an area, incorporated spatial data isdiscriminating. Quite a bit of a utility`s data innovation spendingplan is committed to client frameworks. The client records speak to anoteworthy resource of a service organization. Utility clientframeworks contain data like installment and utilization history,rate class, area, criticality of supply, and metering sort, amongother key data. What client frameworks don`t give is a spatialconnection to the information. Compelling connection with clients isvital to the utility`s prosperity. Unquestionably keeping the lightson is vital to consumer loyalty.

Itmay appear like a basic thing: taking meter readings, analyzing thereadings through a billing system, compute the appropriate charges,sending the bills to clients, gather the cash. In any case, clientshave diverse rate calendars, move around, and now and again defaulton their payments. Every one of these components convolute thecharging procedure. At whatever point that the bill estimationhappens, a lot of questioning takes place. Electric utilities handlethe greater part of bills without an issue, the little minority ofcharging issues can make a huge workload for call focus and chargingworkers. So whatever a utility can work on to diminish the quantityof charging issues would pay off liberally. GIS can offer thisassistance. GIS can better deal with the meter perusing procedureitself. Charging frameworks have a tendency to be greatly precise, sogiven the right meter reading, bills are quite often correct. Be thatas it may, any issue with charging precision is quite often becauseof an evaluated meter reading. Evaluated peruses are made because ofthe failure of meter perusers to get to the meter amid the plannedcourse. Unique meter peruses happen when clients move or whenutilities supplant a meter or discover the meter to be flawed. It`sthese extraordinary circumstances that make the most work and producethe lion`s share of charging request and issues. Utilities use GIS tooversee meter perusing courses. GIS can be utilized to alterablycorrect courses for new circumstances, for example, when somebodybuilds another house amidst a current neighborhood, or to investigatewhere charging issues most usually happen. GIS can figure out whereto deliberately place computerized frameworks in issue regions. GIScan help highlight designs for meter perusers. Clients` requestsregularly trigger different procedures.

Illustrationsincorporate requesting another administration, requesting a privateproperty streetlight, asking for a meter test, looking for a lightingdiscount, or requesting a vitality review. While we frequently thinkabout utility as being in charge of putting up transformers, newpipes and lines, and transformers, utilities need to oversee numerousother client related assignments. Since these exercises include aclient or a client`s specialists, making exact arrangements can beoverwhelming. GIS helps in easing the work by being on the lookoutfor any electric issues. The main source of customer consideration inoperations is the utility call focus point. Here, customerspecialists get charging solicitations, security questions, electricdetriment calls, meter breakdown and high bill grievances, shutoffand turn-on requesting, streetlight power outage reports, and evengrumblings about boisterous line trucks working in the extent. Tomany customers, the call focus is the most dependable type ofcorrespondence in the middle of them and the electric organization.

GIS Engineering Analysis

Electricitygeneration, transmission and distribution is a big business inwhichever country it is in, and electric utilities are confrontedwith constantly expanding rivalry (Nag &amp Sengupta, 2007). Thecompetition is tough in regions that do not have a governmentalmonopoly in this sector. In areas with more than one electricutility, the competition is tough. These utilities are obliged tocreate more power, at higher unwavering quality, with less cost ofstaff (Thomas &amp McDonald, 2015). Generally, GIS is a frameworkthat empowers more prominent corporate productivity through thepowerful sharing and appropriation of data. Advanced informationsystems in utilities, as well as great corporate data frameworks,create the difference between a successful and failed utility intoday`s electric business. Besides, those organizations that havesound data frameworks can influence existing information to bolsterdesigning examination (and in addition other particularapplications). Using existing corporate data is the intelligentdecision to dodge repetition and synchronization issues. Thus,electric utilities that implement GIS have a higher throughput whencomplemented by engineering analysis tools within their corporateinformation systems network.

Theengineering analysis of an electric utility should be given utmostimportance. This can be achieved through the design of high-qualityengineering applications, with particularly reliable datasets.Engineering analysis requires that data be derived from the GIS andmanipulated for utilization in the business model. This data shouldnot be left to lie within GIS only. The manipulation involvedincludes data conversion, network tracing, validation, softwareexecution and additional engineering parameters as indicated byTrussell and Kenney.

Thereis a mixture of approaches to incorporate GIS and designinginvestigation. Data extraction is the most fundamental strategy andwill be used in this investigation. Extraction alludes to drawingdata from the GIS, using engineering analysis to supplement it withthe information needed, and sending out it to its particulardatabase. This methodology furnishes the designer with aggregatecontrol of the data, yet exhibits upkeep issues in light of the factthat any progressions made by the designer aren`t consolidated overinto the venture information framework. It is critical to perceive.However, it is past the extent of this work, that an assortment ofreconciliation situations exist to mechanize this procedure on anundertaking level. Some of these reconciliations are bundled in theintegration solutions outlined below.

Some of the Integration Solutions Already in Use

GISreporting capabilities can be made reliable and valid through theintegration of this geographic system to engineering analysis.Various integration solutions exist for the various needs andrequirements of electric utilities. From a GIS vantage point, thereexist monetarily accessible, customized integrations forincorporating the design and implementation of engineering analysisthrough ESRI accomplices. A good example of an integration solutionis the Miner &amp Miner ArcFM®, an effective augmentation tofundamental GIS. ArcFM is a reliable extension that is utilized as acorporate solution for the management of an electric utility (Meyers,2001). The fact that it can be used to interface systems makes itoutstanding for its efficiency and reliability. It enables theinterfacing of GIS and electric network infrastructure withthird-party engineering solutions and analysis engines. Its networkadapter permits a building model to be removed from the current GISinformation and stacked by means of XML into the tool used foranalysis of this data. Likewise, it considers the stream of data oncemore into the GIS, the other way. Generally, this apparatus gives aninterface between the GIS and the software used in engineeringanalysis. The model layouts are organized to work with ESRI`sElectrical Distribution information model and interface with normalanalysis systems, for example, CYME`s CYMDIST®, Advantica Stoner`sElectric Solver®, and Milsoft`s Windmil®. Analyzing theseintegration solutions on the basis of power systems, software vendorssuch as Siemens Corporation design solutions that can act asinterfaces between engineering analysis tools and GIS. The powersystem analysis as done by PSS/E® is integrated into GIS throughsome engines designed by Siemens Corporation. PSS/Engines® containthe calculations important to perform distinctive analysis withindistribution networks of electric power.

Manyintegration solutions exist today, and more are being designed andcreated as the electric utility industry grows and expands. Thisresearch will utilize the ArcFM as it is readily available andcomprehensively implemented.

Research and Data Collected

Thedistribution and transmission of electricity by electric utilitieswill be studied through the use of ArcFM. The understanding of theimportance of GIS will be derived from the advantages that come withsuch a reliable system. This system will be compared to other systemsused for monitoring, mapping and network analysis within electricutilities and the efficiencies compared.

Reliabledata has been obtained on various electric utilities implementing GISin their transmission and distribution work. This data gives a clearindication of the necessity that is GIS and its related softwareapplications in the improvement of electric distribution (O’Looney,2000).

Acase in point is Bermuda’s BELCO. This electric utility is the onlygenerator, transmitter, and distributor of electricity in Bermuda.This company aims at meeting the electric necessities of theindividuals and organizations of Bermuda, with a customer base of32,000 clients (Teicholz, 2001). It hopes to achieve this in asecure, economic and reliable manner. BELCO is a long-term client ofEsri ArcGIS solution and as of late actualized the ArcFM Arrangement.These arrangements were decided for a few key reasons. To begin with,BELCO needed to decrease the measure of repetitive informationsection by putting away however much information in a solitarydatabase archive as could be expected. Secondly, the utility neededto have a distinct depiction of its facilities and its auxiliarynetwork. There was also a need to properly store and update itsclient and infrastructure information that dwelled in a systemdesigned to manage power outages, known as the OMS (Meehan, 2007).

Acrucial aspect of GIS usage by BELCO is the ultimate restoration ofelectric power. This restoration is done after a hurricane. Bermudaconsists of islands that experience hurricanes for some time aroundthe last half of the year. Typhoons can develop into hurricanes thatcan lead to devastating effects on the Bermuda Islands. Geologistshave discovered millennium-old hurricane traces in Bermuda.Century-old records of hurricanes also exist and are proof of thedangers posed by these natural phenomena.

Ahurricane that revolutionized the technology used in electricutilities in Bermuda was the Hurricane Fabian of 2003. This hurricanewas characterized by winds that reached average speeds of over 100miles/hr. The climate station in Bermuda recorded of over 160miles/hr before the wind gage was destroyed by the same hurricane.The hurricane, which hit the island for more than 8 hours,interrupted power supply to 25,000 clients. The outage wasaccompanied by the destruction of mainline circuits. The three weeksthat followed the hurricane saw BELCO strive to totally restorecustomer connections. From this experience, staff members understoodthe advantages of GIS in the restoration of electric power. They alsoappreciated automatic information systems, as well as the OMS(Christopherson, 2012).

Immediatelyafter, BELCO contracted with ESRI’s Business Partner, OneGIS, Inc,to plan and create a GIS-based harm evaluation device, which ispresently known as the IST (Incident Survey Tool). This tool can berelied upon for information support, altering, and reliable error andinformation reporting that affects business errands that happen amidand after a storm or other common catastrophe, in addition toordinary regular events. It is intended to permit the end clients togather and keep up data on destroyed electric poles. This data isthen stacked into a solitary database environment from which teamscan be dispatched and doled out to repair the poles. The instrumentwill likewise guarantee that all work is followed to the end. Also,reports can be created on damages to a specific circuit orinfrastructure. For example, brought down or inclining posts can beidentified and located. This is utilized to help the administrationchoose how best to distribute the relevant work force and to organizethe work once first phase of restoration has been concluded(Johansson, et. al., 2012).

Figure2: BELCO incident survey

Hurricanesare bound to reoccur in the future, and meteorologists haveforewarned the nation of Bermuda of worse ones yet to come. As such,BELCO is executing an extension of ArcFM known as Viewer Redline thatis a proprietary product of Miner and Miner. This extension allowsthe designated teams to put down reliable GIS information as they aregathering data on affected electric poles (Sioshansi, 2009).

Figure3: BELCO GIS and data for Bermuda

BELCOplans to in the end make a free Site where it will have the capacityto furnish the general society with data about blackouts and theirplans and efforts in the restoration of electric power connections(Kwan, et.al, 2014).

Anothercase study on the implementation of GIS is the Lebanese electricutility known as Electricite Du Liban (EDL). This organizationproduces, transmits, and appropriates power to millions of clientsall through the nation (Meaden &amp Thang-Do-Chi, 1996). With thebacking of Khatib &amp Alami (K&ampA), the Esri merchant inLebanon, it has effectively executed its GIS framework in light ofEsri innovation to model and deal with its electrical frameworkfoundation in metropolitan Beirut—the GISEL project.

TheGISEL project was launched in 1993 and has helped with vanquishingsome difficulties that EDL has confronted in its electric operations.The fundamental test is decreasing system and network losses(specialized and nontechnical) created by clamorous systemadvancements and unlawful electric power tapping (Sreenivasan, 2011).The achievement of this is though the tracking of energy flow fromsubstations to customers. Any flaws, breakages and illegal tappingcan be identified from this tracking and addressed immediately(Peters, 2006).

Tolessen the rampant cases of nontechnical errors to satisfactoryguidelines, the EDL and K&ampA groups built up a collectionmanagement system running in GIS. Through this application, they getEnergy Correlation (EC) studies depending on introduced meterreadings at distinctive levels of the system. The CM application wasinitially running on ArcView’s version 3.2 and was as of late movedto Desktop version 9.1 of ArcGIS (Ormsby, 2004). The studies of ECcomprise of two levels: the essential feeders versus disseminationtransformers and the appropriation transformers versus end clients.

Thedistribution transformers that ought to be assessed are highlightedthrough the EC investigation between essential feeders anddissemination transformers. The charged kilowatt-hour (kWh) use isanalyzed against the genuine use by the EC studies between theappropriation transformers and the end clients (Meehan, 2013). Thisstudy identifies the nontechnical errors on the low-voltage system.In the wake of pinpointing the system regions with risingnontechnical errors, infringement correction groups are dispatched,equipped with maps and verifiable kWh utilization reports that can bederived from the application designed for collection management. Theyincapacitate illegitimate system associations and make proper movesagainst violators. Besides, the EDL and K&ampA groups watchtransformers with high errors by remonitoring EC, searching fordetermined illicit connections on the network.

Decreasingspecialized errors depends on the operation the Facility Sitingapplication that is in-built within GIS. In light of EDL powerappropriation guidelines and a database on the clients, the facilitysiting application—created utilizing MapObjects 2.1 (as of latemoved to ArcGIS 9.1)—helps EDL`s home association office insettling on choices about associating new structures to the electricdissemination lattice or in fortifying a current association.

Onaccount of another electric connection, in the wake of finding theappropriate site, the client is requested by the application to enterthe obliged new load, the utilization factor, its type, and a cushionseparation for the application to look for a source of power. Theapplication works on the submitted information and runs a heap streammodule to identify areas in which there is a drop in voltages on thecurrent system. Toward the end, the application shows the realcondition of the influenced electric system and its gadgets, forexample, transformer attributes and the influenced links`determinations. It displays situations of the expected electric statesubsequent to executing the client interest for the client to browse,and it will demonstrate resistance sometimes. At last, the clientchooses the perfect decision and draws a representation of theanticipated course of the cabling network (Sivanagaraju &ampSatyanarayana, 2009).

Theapplication furnishes the system organizer with a report thatincorporates a mapped out site as well as the systems involved,alongside all ascertained electric components, for example, voltagedrop and the link limit (amps). It also includes the type of cablesused and their number, as well as the transformer’s diversityfactor, comparing the load demand on the network before and after thehookup.

TheFS application comprises of extra key elements, for example, showingsolutions for issues identified with the low-voltage system arranging(e.g., ideal line design), to diminish voltage drops (Bayliss &ampHardy, 2012). Thus, this application offers suggestions to rerouteelectrical cables to structures starting with one system then ontothe next, supplant a few systems with higher cross segments to suitthe obliged load, or reduce the voltage drop by changing the kind ofconnecting lines used (Singh, 2010).

Tosupplement and influence its GIS venture, EDL is getting ready toactualize a staged Autonomous Meter Reading task with fullreconciliation with the GIS. This reliable integration will give widecontrol over the appropriation system exercises and accomplish themonitoring of losses along the transmission lines over the internet.

Theimportance of EDL’s GIS program is seen in the utility datainnovation and assumes a crucial role in everyday business. Byincorporating GIS into different frameworks, for example, the clientrelationship administration framework and the blackout hotlineframework, EDL has the capacity to influence GIS datasets to backoperational exercises and improve efficiency in administrationdependability and level of client administration.

Researchon the implementation of GIS was also conducted in regards toPhilippines and the country’s National Transmission Corporation(TRANSCO) (Sicat, 2002). From this research, it is evident that thisorganization is in charge of electrical transmission in this country.The TRANSCO GIS undertaking is controlled by Esri`s group of GISapplications in ArcGIS 9. The products incorporated are ArcView,ArcInfo, ArcGIS Server, ArcGIS Spatial Expert, ArcGIS 3DInvestigator, ArcGIS Information Interoperability, ArcGIS Schematics,ArcPad, ArcSDE, and ArcPad Application Developer (InternationalBusiness Publications, 2007).

TRANSCOlikewise actualizes the TAMIS application that uses a DBMS fromOracle 10g. With TAMIS, TRANSCO staff can show, question, and dissectcomputerized maps for the best course to a facility, right-of-way andobstructions along a transmission course, geography, and elevatedsymbolism, among others (Toba, 2003).

TheF.F. Cruz &amp Co. and GSTI created and conveyed a few arrangementsof computerized TRANSCO maps (Garson, 1999). One set containsdifferent elevated photographs and satellite pictures. Another setincorporates TRANSCO`s different resources, for example, workplaces,distribution centers, substations, transmission lines, correspondencetransfer stations, control focuses, towers, correspondence offices,and fiber-optic links. A few topical maps of different scales, forexample, authoritative limits, open base, street systems, stream andwater bodies, vegetation spread, area utilization, landcharacterization, soils and topography, secured territories andindigenous people groups locales, risk zones, and some demographicinformation, are likewise given.

Also,Geodata Frameworks Advancements, Inc., Esri`s merchant in thePhilippines, has executed a project in GIS known as TARELCO I,situated in the Luzon’s Tarlac District. TARELCO I gives electricadministrations to 13 districts in Tarlac region, two regions ofNueva Ecija area, a few barangays of Guimba district in Nueva Ecijaterritory, and five barangays of Tarlac City.

TheGIS software provided by GSTI includes ArcView 9 and ArcPad PCequipment advanced maps covering the administration territory ofTARELCO I GIS preparing for TARELCO faculty specializedadministrations and undertaking administration and supervision.

UtilizingGIS innovation to mechanize TARELCO`s equipment gives theirfield-laborers and different workers with spatial information accessfor taking care of a wide range of issues, from equipmentsubstitution to administration solicitations to propertyadministration. This sort of spatial information access changed howTARELCO serve their clients, keep up ideal administrationdependability and wellbeing, and work in a more economical way.

GISinnovation empowers TARELCO to assemble a far reaching mechanizeddatabase of electric equipment, power lines, electric poles andconsumers of electric power. With the framework, TARELCO can stayinformed concerning the area and state of all their equipment,facilities and structures. It additionally meets the prerequisitescommanded by the National Transmission Corporation and the NationalElectrification Administration (Dibiase, 2006).

WithGIS innovation, this organization can undoubtedly utilize its areabase data and facilities in overseeing blackouts, and in addition thesupport of their appropriation framework, for example, line watchassessments and client administration demands. They will have thecapacity to achieve great strides in electric distribution to theadvantage their customers (Pick, 2008).

Essentially,the GIS innovation significantly helps TARELCO in the successful andeffective administration of the electric circulation framework forthe advantage and welfare of their large customer base of more than104,000 clients in both the Tarlac region and the Nueva Ecijaterritories. Besides enhancing their services, they expect a checkedchange in their primary concern because of better financialadministration an increment in effectiveness and precision andbetter backing in their choice making, planning, and themechanization of the processes involved in their work (Maguire,Smith, &amp Kouyoumjian, 2008).

Researchwas also conducted on Energie Baden-Wurttemberg AG (EnBW), which isone of Germany`s biggest suppliers of energy. It is actualizing acoordinated all inclusive system for its geospatial information thatis open to more than 1,700 clients. The endeavor arrangement istaking into account ArcGIS and related programming items. Theframework is utilized for specialized region association, specializedplant administration, and system control. SAP reconciliation tobolster business procedures is a fundamental piece of all venturestages.

EWRAG utility company utilizes ArcGIS and reciprocal programming forsystem information investigation, permitting the organization toproductively assess its advantage and system information and utilizethis data for corporate choice making. The organization iscoordinating the GIS with the current SCADA framework. Later on someaccess to the reporting capacities of the GIS will be granted to theconstruction companies and local authorizes for use in development ofprojects.

SWMMagdeburg (the general population utility of Magdeburg) characterizeddifferent GIS ventures, the most imperative being combination withSAP, association with systems that calculate the network features,incorporated planning, mobile GIS, management of records andredlining. SWM Magdeburg plans to coordinate SAP and AED-SICAD`sArcFM UT as the primary mainstay of its corporate IT. Through thismix, the utility guarantees that the information is updated andsteady in both frameworks, yet both can be connected all the whilethrough the crossing over of SAP and GIS. All further system relatedrealistic applications in the utility are either supplanted by theGIS or associated with it subsequently, all spatial information liesinitially in the GIS. With the new utilities application fromAED-SICAD, SWM Magdeburg has a corporate and very incorporated answerfor every single spatial procedure.

InGermany, AED-SICAD is the main supplier of GIS applications inEurope. It offers tailor-made and standard solutions and applicationsfor different businesses. ArcFM UT is its answer for the electricutility industry. It joins the qualities of Esri innovation, ArcFMand ArcGIS. The framework is utilized for system documentation,blackout administration, client data, maintenance, planning andincorporation with SCADA.

Völklingen,a public utility in Germany, concentrates district heating needs,power, water and gas, hence giving a complete electricity and watersupply to the individuals and organizations from one single source.The organization works a thorough system base to cover theimmeasurable supply area along the French outskirt. A TechnicalPlanning Department exists that utilizes ArcFM UT View Designersegment for the purpose of planning its projects. Utilizing ArcFM UTWeb and the GIS gateway taking into account ArcIMS, up to 20 extrastaff individuals from the general population utility can utilizegeographic data in their day by day work.

Lookingat The Trinidad &amp Tobago Electric Commission (T&ampTEC), it isclear that it gives energy to the twin island republic of Trinidadand Tobago. Since its initiation in 1946, T&ampTEC has been centeredaround the operation and support of the nation`s electrical system.T&ampTEC creates and disseminates power to 388,815 household,industrial, business, and road lighting clients in 5 provincialdivisions. With the objective of enhancing unwavering quality andclient administration, T&ampTEC as of late recognized the need toactualize an Enterprise GIS to further bolster a more powerful andproficient electrical system. As a component of T&ampTEC`sinvestigation, expected advantages of an Enterprise GIS were:

• BetterClient Care – Consumer Investigators, Meter Readers, and CrisisTeams will have the capacity to find clients and thusly enhanceresponsiveness to clients` administration needs.

• EnhancedPlant Support – The status and state of outside plant and gear willbe proficiently evaluated, classified and organized for upkeep inlight of area and criticality.

• EnhancedOffices Administration – A strong stock of Transmission andAppropriation resources the area of these advantages in connectionto nature and the execution of these benefits will give the vitaldata expected to settle on choice in respect to support orsubstitution of the plant.

• EngineeringAnalysis – The analysis of distribution networks, for example,insurance coordination, load flows and load adjusting would beconceivable, bringing about enhanced unwavering quality and nature ofthe supply for all clients.

Tomeet these needs, T&ampTEC swung to 3-GIS to go about as its GISspecialists. With a long history of actualizing GIS at utilities,and also its industry driving suite of ArcGIS Server based items,3-GIS was very much situated to lead T&ampTEC in this exertion.3-GIS held broad prerequisites workshops with T&ampTEC`s GIS groupand added to a GIS information model for its Transmission, Conveyanceand Correspondence divisions. To gather dispersion information forthe geodatabase, T&ampTEC used the mobile software supported by3-GIS. 3-GIS mobile conveys the accompanying abilities to utilitieslooking for a portable GIS arrangement:

• Easyto utilize devices thus eliminating the need for extensive training

• Broaddesign capacities minimize customization costs

• Capacityto reference any Esri geodatabase diminishes the need for conversion

• Afootprint that is light facilitates an IT division`s job by reducingtheir burden.

Workingwith T&ampTEC`s GIS colleagues, 3-GIS designed 3-GIS mobile,capturing structures, conductors, meters and gear as a components ofthe field inventory. The measure of data gathered made them settle onproduction with a team of 50 people and less effort. When the networkinventory is completed, specialists will utilize 3-GIS Mobile as astaking device to arrange new developments. T&ampTEC will likewiseutilize 3-GIS Mobile to perform examinations on posts, transformers,lines, substations, and transmission structures. In the end, T&ampTECfield teams will use 3-GIS Mobile to perform harm evaluations andvegetation administration exercises. Notwithstanding 3-GIS Mobile,3-GIS Web, an online GIS investigation and altering device, iscurrently being conveyed by T&ampTEC. T&ampTEC is utilizing 3-GISWeb as a basic apparatus for diverse offices, including ClientAdministration, Dispatch and Engineering to get to T&ampTEC`sinformation. With more staff having entry to the GIS and having thecapacity to report on, query and monitor the network, T&ampTEC`s GISobjectives ought to be feasible. With the sending of their GISthrough both 3-GIS Web and 3-GIS Mobile, T&ampTEC is coordinatingtheir GIS with its other venture arrangements, including AMI, OMS andResource Administration frameworks. By sending a genuine Endeavor GISwith 3-GIS`s help, the Trinidad &amp Tobago Power Commission haseffectively accomplished their dependability and administrationobjectives and is much closer to coming to their objectives for aproficient brilliant framework. They are certain the full arrangementof 3-GIS Mobile and 3-GIS Web will help T&ampTEC satisfy theguarantees they made to their clients (Segal-Horn et.al, 2008).

Analysis of the Collected Data – A Comparison of a utility withand without GIS

Thedata was collected in terms of a study of various electric utilitiesthat have implemented GIS in their operations. To analyze this dataand create an understanding of GIS in electrical utilities, thisthesis compares the operations of a utility with and without GISimplementation (Geomap Society, 1990). From this analysis, it isexpected that differences in performance and efficiency will beobserved at all points of operation.

The Public Electricity Corporation in YemenBefore GIS

Inthe early years of this utility company, and in its present timewhereby the implementation of advanced mapping systems in terms ofGIS is yet to be realized, the Public Electricity Corporation hasmany issues with its operations (Foster &amp Briceno-Garmendia,2010). These issues range from generation to transmission anddistribution of electricity. The issues involved are affecting theproductivity of the company and it is becoming difficult to sustainthe growing population of Yemen in terms of power supply. Industriesare also coming up and there is an urgency to expand the electricnetwork so as to support economic growth and development in themodern world of globalization.

Figure 4: Yemen electricityconsumption by year

Thegraph has been derived from the United States Energy InformationAdministration

Thenormal operations now involve the hydroelectric and geothermalgeneration of electricity and its distribution through transmissionlines without any form of precise monitoring. The first issue thatcan be noted is the increased level of vandalism that characterizesthis period. This vandalism involves the theft of transformers,broken power lines and even posts that have fallen after torrentialrain. This vandalism is bringing about losses to the company and thecountry at large. The losses are in terms of millions and wereprohibiting the company from growing economically and geographically.As a result of the vandalism, outages are common since transformersand power lines connecting the customers are either missing or havebeen destroyed or stolen. With these losses, the company mostlyconcentrates on replacing the stolen items instead of buying new ones(Hausman, et.al, 2008).

The table below shows the increasing trend of the vandalism ofelectric equipment along the transmission and distribution lines, aswell as substations:

Year

Number of Attempts

Successful Attempts

2006-2007

814

800

2007-2008

925

925

2008-2009

1027

1000

2009-2010

1090

1051

2010-2011

950

931

2011-2012

1400

1211

2012-2013

1310

1307

2013-2014

1700

1649

Table 2: Attempted andsuccessful electric equipment vandalisms

Fromthe table above, most of the attempted vandalisms were successful andwere realized after the damage had already been done, or aftercustomers called in to report the cases. As such, it is evident thatcontrolling these vandals is quite difficult and there is an urgentneed of constant monitoring to ensure that attempts are detected intime and thwarted before damage is done.

Thepopulation is growing and the number of people requiring properelectric supply is increasing. Industries utilizing high voltages andcurrents are also on the rise and the demand for electricity isbeyond what is generated. As such, frequent power rationings arecommon, with some regions failing to get any supply at all during theday for the sake of high demand areas. The principle harm broughtabout by an electric blackout is self-evident. In the event that abusiness’ electric supply comes up short at a remote site, and thebusiness lacks a reinforcement power supply, the site will go dark(Sivanagaraju &amp Satyanarayana, 2009). This means system downtime,lost income, and irate clients who will move their business toanother supplier.

Figure 5: Rate of responseto power outages

Thechart above shows the percentage of outages relative to the responsetime they usually get. Most of the blackouts, especially those in therural regions, are responded to even after a month has elapsed. Theones responded to within a day are those in critical areas such asmilitary bases and hospitals, which cover only 5% of the totalblackouts in the country. The reasons for such extensive delays arethe lack of proper equipment to notify the utility of the blackouts,as well as difficulty of accessing such regions.

Yet,these blackouts likewise cause long-term harm that isn`t soself-evident. A complete lack of power at a remote site can destroyelectric apparatus – and the business – even after the supply isrestored. Gear for monitoring remote sites likewise needs a reliablesupply of electric power and backup. It is important for businessesnot to lose sight of their local business sites (Taylor, 1927).

Onthe off chance that a remote site is off amid a power blackout, thebusiness misses these fundamental cautions: Status of reinforcementpower supply and environmental alerts for overheating, fire, andwater harm. Site security, entryway, door, and interruption cautions(Singh, 2010).

Whatall these shrouded harms signify is superfluous expenses. The impactsof a power blackout are not just on electric apparatus, or onactivities – but on the bottom line of the business. The budgetaryimpact of a power blackout falls into four classifications: lostincome, repair of destroyed equipment, replacement of equipment thatcannot be repaired and manpower expenses of restoring connections.Unless the Public Electricity Corporation has a satisfactoryreinforcement arrangement, power blackouts mean expanded expenses andlost income. Customers have added expenses of having to purchaseprotective equipment for their equipment (United Nations, 1997).

Theoperations of the PEC, due to the lack of implementation of thereliable GIS, involve the physical mapping of the correct routes(Yates, 2007). A lot of surveying has to be done so as to establishthe right of way across a piece of land. It is a costly andtime-wasting process which involves a lot of legal procedures andformalities. Some routes, such as those across forests, are alsodifficult to map because personnel have to be sent to such hardshipareas and mark out the best possible routes for the power lines. Assuch, a lot of effort is also utilized. The result of this kind ofmapping is delayed connections to customers. These delays are due tothe amount of time it takes to establish a path as an appropriateroute to get to the customers and to have the transmission linesproperly and safely mounted on posts (Vagliasindi, 2012). Remoteareas are particularly difficult to deal with because they have mapsand areas that have not been properly exploited, and are thereforeunknown to many people.

WithoutGIS, this utility company has very poor customer service. The clientshave to make visits to the power offices just for queries andinformation. Therefore, service is highly limited to regions aroundthe company’s offices. Making phone calls to the company forsupport is quite hectic because there are many clients calling in,thus it is difficult for both the company and the clients. In termsof billing, many errors are made and some people pay overstated orunderstated bills (Einhorn &amp Siddiqi, 1996). The meters used arenot automated meter readers and have to be monitored by personnel whohave to go door to door to take the readings. Once the readings aretaken, the person who reads them has to go back to the offices andcalculations for the amount of money to charge each client are done.The bills are sent through mail, and there is no way for clients toknow beforehand how much they are to pay. Overpayments are sometimesnot transferred to the succeeding bill. At the end of it all, thiscompany only has clients because it is a monopoly but not becausethey serve people well (Halff, Sovacool &amp Rozhon, 2014). Theprocess of paying the bills is the most loathed one because peoplehave to form long queues at the end of the month so as to physicallypay to a cashier before disconnections are made due to delayedpayments.

Interms of monitoring client usage, the performance of the utilitycompany is below standards. An outage can last more than three daysbefore someone addresses it. The reason for the delay is the lack ofproper maps that would guide the relevant personnel to theproblematic transformer or substation. They have to rely on papermaps, which can be inaccurate or misguiding at times. Thus, thecustomer service provided by this company is poor and needs urgentrevision and remaking so as to avoid having customers lose theirfaith in the company. Appropriate communication channels have to beestablished for this to be achievable.

Currentoperations also involve a lot of illegal connections. These illicitconnections involve having people tap the main power lines andtransformers so as to benefit from the power supply without having topay a cent for the connection or the use of power. Such connectionsare not done by experienced personnel or people who have theexpertise like that of utility workers. It mostly happens amonglow-income earners who wish to get electric connections but have nomeans to pay for them. Therefore, the Public Electricity Corporationdoes not benefit from such connections (Essential Services, 2003).Instead, they are sources of losses in terms of money and lives.These connections are poorly done and dangerous to those people whomake them. To begin with, people make these connections while thepower lines are still live. Since this is an illegal activity, theycannot contact the utility offices to switch off the power as they goon with their activities (Alexander, 1993). Therefore, they have torisk working with the live connections. Many people get electrocutedand some die as they try to make these illegal connections. Othersstart horrific fires after triggering short circuits from theconnections they make. These fires are particularly dangerous if theytake place in slums whose houses are close together and made ofcombustible materials such as wood, paper and thatches. The firesoften raze down numerous houses, leading to more losses. Theseconnections also overload the transformers from which the connectionsare made, and even lead to blackouts when the load is more than canbe handled. Due to the lack of a proper monitoring system, and anetwork analysis and fault identification system, it is difficult forthe utility to note the illegal tapping. As such, most of them gounnoticed and unaddressed.

Networkmonitoring is also traditional and ineffective, as well asinefficient. The techniques used to identify faults in power lines,as well as their location and the time they take place are quiteunreliable. The methods used are mostly dependent on observation,which requires personnel to always be on the move as they inspect themajor connections, such as those of high-voltage cables. Moreover,this monitoring is not in real time, as a fault could be detecteddays after it has occurred. The company depends on reports ofblackouts or observed transformer explosions, as well as fallingpoles. Such sources are not dependable when managing a utility thatis serving millions, with more clients coming in each year. The formof network-monitoring takes up a lot of resources in terms of time,personnel and money. It is also hectic when it comes to monitoringpower lines going through remote and inaccessible regions.Transformer attributes are not properly monitored in Yemen andrecords on them are unreliable (UN Industrial DevelopmentOrganization, 2014).

Theperformance of the Public Electricity Corporation involves a lot ofphysical work and labor. Productivity is low and losses are high. Themeans that their efficiency in terms of generation, transmission anddistribution of electricity to the clients is low. A lot of power andmoney are lost along the lines of transmission. It also takes a verylong time (approximately four months) from the period of applying fora connection to the time it is done. Such a system lacks in thevarious crucial aspects of network monitoring, troubleshooting andresponding to crisis. The results of such a poor setting in terms ofan electric utility is traditional and requires change so as to gainmaximum profits.

After GIS

Ifthis GIS framework is set up in Yemen, the Public ElectricityCorporation can have a better understanding of the geographicdynamics, for instance, why a few districts are profoundly describedby power outages and why repairs are always done on a certainsubstation or transformer. The company can likewise distinguish whycertain electric posts are being replaced on such a regular basis.This may call attention to high rates of burglary and vandalism ofthe electric assets in the zone hence a need to set up efforts toestablish beefed up security or alert residents to be on the lookout.The GIS contains a geodatabase that upgrades progressively and thatcan indicate every facility and hardware along the line oftransmission (United States, 1976). In this manner, utilizing thedata produced from the geodatabase, the administrator can recognizegear that is being looted or vandalized. As being what is indicated,they can likewise find the closest police headquarters from the samedatabase and contact it by means of telephone asking for them toreact earnestly to the vandalized hardware (Utility Data Institute,1999). Public Electricity Corporation would rely upon this newarrangements that will upgrade security of power transformers anddiscourage vandals from effectively getting to them. GIS willdemonstrated its effectiveness by telling clients of progressingburglaries. A few individuals will be captured while in the act ofstealing lubricating oil from transformers and instances of vandalismwill incredibly lessen in the nation. With such a utilityadministration framework, crisis reaction groups will have thecapacity to act speedier and productively. The execution of theframework will give data to the watch groups and police around theregion on the most proficient method to locate the best route toreach the transformer being vandalized. In that capacity, The PublicElectricity Corporation will give power by effectively transmittingand dispersing it in a satisfactory and solid way. GIS databases willbe utilized by various support offices, including inspections, fireservices, police records, emergency management departments, andrescue mission operators to react to vandalized electrical cables,transformers and substations.

The table below shows projected reductions in vandalism upon theimplementation of a GIS system:

Year after Implementation

No. of Attempts

Successful Attempts

Year 1

1500

400

Year 2

1200

327

Year 3

750

110

Year 4

310

43

Year 5

100

17

Table 3: Projected attemptsand successful vandalisms with GIS implementation

Thetable above shows the reduced number of vandalism cases with GISimplementation. In the first year, attempts will still be more ascitizens will not have experienced the effectiveness of the system.However, many of these attempts will be thwarted before anyconsiderable damage is done. The cases will reduce and it is expectedthat by the 5thyear of implementation, vandals will be afraid of getting caught, andthe attempts will reduce drastically.

Uponthe future GIS integration, the Public Electricity Corporation willcounter power blackouts with ease. This framework will be executedsuch that it will have a database of facilities that are critical,including hospital facilities and police headquarters that can beaffected by these blackouts. The utility will use an ArcViewextension appropriated to different areas the nation over in order toperform this basic assignment. The absence of internet connectionsthat are reliable will probably lock out the prospects of an onlineapplication (Uniamikogbo, 1995). Critically placed facilities havepower backups, and thus it will be necessary to use ArcView so as tocover these regions and prevent outages. Through GIS, PEC will manageto locate random power outages and identify their causes throughtroubleshooting mechanisms. This system will be used to createreports on important facilities within a region and map them relativeto police and fire stations.&nbspIt can also draw maps of areasexperiencing frequent outages such that they can easily be monitoredand traced for improvements on the same. Feeders can be located andteams sent to them for repairs and restoration. Reports of blackoutswill also be generated and monitored so as to identify trends andcome up with solutions to them, unlike in the present operations.

Figure 6: Predictedresponse to power outages with GIS implementation

Thechart above shows the predicted improved response to blackouts uponthe implementation of a GIS system, following an analysis of theefficiency of the same. Very few cases will take over a month torespond to, while most of the power outages will be solved within aweek.

Routingof power lines will tremendously improve in the country after the PECtakes up GIS and integrates it in power transmission anddistribution. Expansion of new high/low voltage lines in view of theaccessible cadastral information and choice of practical routes willbe accomplished effortlessly. In addition, the organization willfigure out how to approximate expenses connected with such expansionsconsidering the obliged number of transformers, length of conductorsand number of posts. Assuch, the utility company will no longer go blindly into expansionprojects, most of which are currently stalling due to lack of propermonetary allocations. Inthe process of planning for new lines, private properties like landand any developmentsin them may be affected. GIS will enable the utility to determine theexact places where the lines should pass and the costs ofcompensation. Owners of such properties will be easily reached forconsentand compensation.

Moreover,the utility will become more efficient in determining the right ofway. In the framework the straight line separation can likewise beutilized to focus the electrical cable separation in meters orkilometers between a transformer and a plot in which a post is to beput. The function for the shortest path decides the way from adestination point to a source. Cradles will typically be used todepict secured zones around elements or to show regions of impact.Buffers will now and then be used to clasp information to a givenstudy region. They will also exclude features inside of a criticaldistance of something from further thought in an examination. Abuffer will be utilized as a part of the framework to come up withthe quantity of plots that can be served by a specific transformer ata given region.

PECwill have ArcGIS Network Analysts who can find the best way to getfrom one location to another or the best way to visit severallocations, thus coming up with the best routes. As such, little timeand effort will be required to come up with the final route for powerlines, and it will not require people to visit these areas in theinitial mapping as it uses spatial data. Thus, surveyors will beeliminated when it comes to determining the right of way, saving onsalary costs of the utility.

Networkmaintenance will be done efficiently by the PEC utility. Bygetting constant data on conductor sizes,transformer loads, feeder loads and future power demands through theGIS system, they can plan for the appropriate days of carrying outmaintenance checks. Overloaded or nearly overloaded transformers willbe up-rate on a schedule. The GIS will also supports curativemaintenance, which is done after a faulthas occurred and is reported by a customer or detected bycontrollers. The transformer number to which the customer supplyreference number is attached is used to locate the area. Usingthe system, the attributes of the transformer will be accessed. Itslocation will also be identified and emergency teamsdispatched appropriately (Kidokoro, 2008).

PECwill improve its billing service through the use of GIS. GIS canbetter deal with the meter reading procedure itself (Pabla, 2004).Charging frameworks have a tendency to be to a great degree exact.Hence, when given the right readings of meters, bills will quiteoften be accurate. Meter reading routes will be managed by the use ofGIS. GIS will be utilized to progressively correct courses for newcircumstances, for example, when somebody puts up another houseamidst a current neighborhood, or to investigate where chargingissues most normally happen. On the off chance that access istroublesome, GIS can figure out where to deliberately place robotizedframeworks in such territories. GIS will help highlight patterns thatrelate to the meter readings. Thus, customers will get their metersread in time, and charged as well.

ThroughGIS, PEC will respond to customers` orders in a short time, improvingtheir reliability and efficiency (Almeida, Gula, &amp Norgard,1998). Examples include ordering a new service, ordering a privateproperty streetlight, requesting a meter test, seeking a lightingrebate, or ordering an energy survey. Since these activities involvea customer or a customer`s agent, making accurate appointments,optimizing travel between appointments, and scheduling tasks will bemade easy by the use of GIS. GIS will aid in visualizing the workseeing patterns in the work helping route technicians, salespeople,and inspectors and enabling crews to understand the current statusof equipment in the field (Faruqui, 1989). Hence both the employeesand the customers will be satisfied in the work done by GIS inensuring customer queries are responded to promptly.

PECwill improve on their customer care utility call center with theintegration of GIS. Customer representatives will receive billinginquiries, conservation questions, electric trouble calls, metermalfunction and high bill complaints. Moreover, they will get shutoffand turn-on requests, streetlight outage reports, and even complaintsabout loud line trucks working in the area. As such, customers willfind it easy to get services of the PEC utility (Almeida &ampRosenfeld, 1988). The negligence of employees due to monopoly will beeliminated since calls will be logged in the GIS system and analyzedin terms of responses and actions taken according to the issueshighlighted.

Thisutility will introduce GIS to help the call center better correspondwith clients. They will populate the GIS database with data aboutpower inconveniences, availability of personnel, and crisis areas.They will identify where specialists are working and altering brokenmeters. Anticipating this data on vast screens all through the callcenter will avail to every client administration agent preparedaccess to what`s going on within a given region. At the point when aclient calls about transformers that are sparking, the call centerpersonnel will rapidly see the known areas of such cases and theareas of fitting field teams working in the territory. This personwill convey this data rapidly and precisely to the client. Clientswill absolutely get their meters settled, their streetlights turnedon, and their energy restored. They will likewise need to realizewhat the present status of their issue is. This level ofcorrespondence, which will be made conceivable by GIS, will go far intruly watching over the client.

Thetable below shows the current and predicted level of customersatisfaction comparing the situations before and after theimplementation of GIS. This table was created following a randomsurvey of 500 users of Yemen’s electricity supply after theadvantages of GIS were explained to them:

Level of satisfaction

Number of respondents (Current situation)

Number of respondents (Predicted situation with future GIS implementation)

Very dissatisfied

150

15

Dissatisfied

110

25

Slightly satisfied

140

50

Satisfied

70

318

Very satisfied

30

102

Table 4: Customersatisfaction with and without GIS in the electric utility

GISwill help the PEC decrease the measure of disregarded obligations itacquires in terms of bad debts. Currently, individuals are defaultingin paying the full installation sum or clearing the electric bills(Meehan, 2007). The organization loses millions regarding forfeitedobligations. The GIS, if utilized by PEC will track perpetualdelinquents. GIS will help agents involved in collection to properlyuse their time by selecting the right neighborhoods to visit or tocall. Some terrible obligations must be explained by closing down theelectric power supply. So if the utility resolves to do shutoffs, GISwill help with the logistics to figure out which administrations toclose off and give ideal steering to the specialists to take after.By utilizing demographic data together with client default data thatwould legitimately fragment the clients, the people involved incollections will manage to set up viable procedures to gather fromnonpayers before those receivables wind up in awful obligation. Onthe off chance that the utility knows, for instance, that there is agroup of nonpayers in a range with a vast elderly populace, it wouldsend delicate updates with, maybe, offers to do vitality reviews tohelp diminish the effect of those clients` electric bills.

GISintegrations by the PEC will help curb illegal connections from powerlines. The company will monitor its network and identify powerconnections that are not authorized (Pabla, 2004). Through thissystem, every kilowatt that is consumed by customers will beaccounted for, and each that fails to be pointed to a particularsubscriber will be seen as tapped. These connections will also bepinpointed on a map created by the GIS such that personnel will bedirected to the exact location of the tapping. The disconnectionswill be made and the perpetrators arrested after the GIS directs therelevant authorities to the exact location of the tapping. Theregions that are notorious with such connections will also be mappedout such that they can constantly be monitored for any illegalconnections.

Implementation of GIS and its Implications – Comparing theEfficiencies of the two

Comparingthe two situations in which the company involved is the solegenerator, transmitter and distributor of electric power in acountry, a lot of differences can be shown. In the first scenariothat represents the years when the country operated an electricutility without using the GIS system, a lot of losses are realized.These losses are in terms of electric power and money. Mostimportantly, the company does not realize its potential in terms ofsupplying power to a huge population. Moreover, it does not gain themaximum possible profits. Most of its money is lost in repairs ofdestroyed or stolen assets, and in traditional ways of doing things.A lot of its activities are manual and require a lot of hired labor.Moreover, the clients find it difficult to communicate with theutility (Almeida &amp Rosenfeld, 1988). There is a hugecommunication gap between the two parts of the market, namely thesupply and the demand. The country has a very high potential ofproducing electricity in terms of hydroelectric power but lacks inthe proper means to distribute and transmit the same. Even after thedistribution, it is difficult to follow up on customer issues. Thesecond scenario is characterized by improvements in terms oftransmission, distribution, network monitoring and costeffectiveness. From this situation which is the period after theimplementation of GIS in the country’s electric utility, a lot oflosses are mitigated. Most of the power generated is distributedeffectively. The transmission lines are laid out in effective routesthat are cost effective as compared to routes that would have beentaken randomly as it was done in the past. Moreover, customer issuesare solved in an instant. Communication channels have beendiversified and are supported by the GIS system. Calls to the callcenter are monitored and logged by the system for effective help deskimplementation. Furthermore, the teams in charge of customer supportcan follow up on the locations from which issues were raised andtrace the possible cause of the problem. Getting the correct route tothe center of the problem saves the utility company a lot of money interms of fuel and time spent looking for the exact problem (Faruqui,1989).

Beloware charts showing two major uses of income in the utility before andafter GIS.

Figure 7: General usage ofincome before GIS

Figure 8: General usage ofincome after GIS

Figures7 and 8 above show the differences in the use of the utility’sincome after salaries and taxes are paid. Before the GISimplementation, most of the income that is left goes back to repairsand restoring vandalized equipment. In figure 8, the biggest portionof the income is channeled to other money-making ventures becauseonly a small portion is used in repairs and restorations. Damageshave been mitigated greatly and the company can grow economicallythrough investments. Thus, GIS has economic benefits.

Onthis comparison, it is evident that the modern utility is moreefficient than the traditional one. The efficiency is derived bycomparing the number of connected clients and the amount of powerdistributed to the clients. It also checks on the amount of cashgained by the utility in terms of profits and relating it to thelevel to which customers are sufficiently supplied with power. Fromthese two situations and time periods, one can conclude that thecurrent system is more efficient than the previous one. More profitsare made by the company, and the rate at which new customers areconnected is also higher. Moreover, the customer satisfaction is alsostudied in terms of the rate and speed at which their issues aresolved effectively. The company satisfies more customers than itcould support in the past and delivers power accordingly. There iseven room for improvement in terms of its customer numbers and willgrow with GIS improvements being incorporated.

Implications of Having GIS in an Electric Utility

Theadvantages of using GIS are many and imply a lot for the utilitycompany involved, the customers, and the government. Through the useof such an efficient system, investors tend to come in and signagreements with the utility company. Moreover, foreign companies haveset up their plants within the country because they are assured ofconstant and reliable power supply from the electric utility. Fromthe PEC perspective, investors have come in and funded the productionof electricity. Companies have also collaborated with the mainsupplier of electricity to assist in production, transmission, anddistribution. Thus, the smartness of the system, and its efficiencyhas attracted more money to the company. The government, afterobserving the use of GIS and the improvement in the utility company,is urging other utility companies to take up similar systems, andwork with them just like the electric utility has. As such, thewater, oil and gas companies are implementing smart mapping systemsand using spatial data to get the best out of their production anddistribution. The country is becoming dynamic in terms of the supplyof energy to customers and is diversifying in various fields ofenergy thanks to the successful GIS system implemented in theelectric utility. The country has also gained revenues from theelectric installations that have been done across the country, withfew losses on vandalized equipment. Following the implementation ofthe GIS system, there are fewer complaints from citizens in terms ofcompensation on the plots taken up by power line routes (Halff,et.al, 2014). Therefore, the country has been calm and satisfied interms of power supply and its routing. Most of the country’scitizens are not aware of the GIS system that has made electricity avery reliable source of energy in the country. However, they areaware of the fact that the use of electricity in the country hasbecome very convenient for all of them, and for the industries intheir countries too.

Conclusion.

Fromthis research, it is evident that GIS can be used in theimplementations of electric utilities. The areas within which thisGIS can be applied include:

  • Network monitoring, where the electric network can be checked for faults and breakages, as well as illegal connections. Through this monitoring, transmission and distribution can be kept in check. Having an eye on the network also ensures that the equipment along the power lines are secure and any reports of vandalism noted and reported, with action being taken almost immediately.

  • Customer service, whereby the customers can get reliable service from the electric utility, and in which the utility company can follow up on the services and connections it gives to its customers. Customer complaints can also be related and mapped out for the ease of coming up with long-term solutions.

  • Effective transmission and distribution of electric power to individuals and industries through the determination of the most efficient routes of transmission and getting the right of way. Getting the correct routes will also involve compensating people whose land has been taken up by high-voltage line connections.

  • Minimizing on the power outages experienced in the country and restoring power after unavoidable interruptions. Through the minimization of the blackouts, the utilities can increase the trust that people have in them and more customers can sign up for connections. Profits will also be on the increase and reduced repairs and restorations will also save on expenses.

  • Cost estimation in all the projects and connections done by the utility company. With such estimations, the utilities can properly plan and budget for their projects.

Theimplementation of a GIS system does not come without its hurdles.Firstly, changing the mindset of utility workers and making themrealize that they can operate with a smart system can prove to bequite a hectic task. Most utilities have relatively old employees whoare used to the manual way of working and travelling to problematicsites. With GIS, they believe that it is a threat to their careersand a way of replacing the old experienced team with the youngtech-savvy generation. This notion might create unhealthyrelationships and competition, as well as divides within the electricutility. Secondly, there is the issue of cost when it comes topurchasing a GIS system, its extensions and the equipment andsoftware involved in its implementation. This move to the use of aGIS system can prove to be quite costly, especially if the utilitydoes not have engineers that can design their own simple GIS system.

However,there are more pros than cons of implementing a GIS system in anelectric utility. The efficiency of an electric utility with GIS isoutstanding in terms of the number of people it can effectivelyserve. The reliability of such a system is worth more than the amountthat would be used to implement one, and is therefore a necessity fora country that requires constant supply of electric power. Developedcountries have implemented these systems and are reaping the benefitsof having a constant and reliable supply of power, as well as a meansof monitoring their network. Developing countries are also taking upthis technology and appreciating its effectiveness, which has adirect relationship to economic growth and development.

Theobjective of reviewingthe use of GIS systems in electric utilities proving the efficiencyand advantages of the same has been done sufficiently. Therefore,this thesis concludes that GIS can be used in the electric utilitiesin improving efficiency and reliability.

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Utilization of GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities

Utilization of GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities 65

Utilizationof GIS in the Field of Electric Utilities

Abstract

Thethesis aims at establishing GIS as a necessity in electric utilities.It does this by looking at the various major issues dealt with in thegeneration, distribution and transmission of electric power over agiven geographical region. Understanding these three concepts isfollowed by creating a need for a smart system that increases theefficiency of the processes involved, as well as reducing the effortrequired in accomplishing them.

Thereason for the research and accompanying thesis is to show theavailability of GIS as a reliable system in the field of electricutilities. It is also meant to enlighten electrical companies dealingwith distribution and transmission of power and that are yet toimplement any smart system along their path of work. Through thethesis and research, they can understand the advantages as well asdisadvantages of GIS. They also get to know the reasons why theyshould implement this system in their daily routines of work.

Theabove mentioned will be achieved through intensive research on GISand its use in various electric fields. Moreover, various utilitieswill be studied across geographical regions so as to capture reliabledata. GIS simulation will be done for a sample electrical company,comparing the efficiencies of having and failing to have this system.After that, recommendations will be issued on the best ways toutilize the system for optimization. It is expected that the resultsof the comparison will bring out a higher efficiency in a systemusing GIS than the one that does not implement such a system.

Theimportance of this research is that it will assist companies dealingwith electric utilities to improve their efficiency and approximatetheir costs appropriately before beginning a project. They will alsomanage to analyze their networks from a central point, improve ontheir customer service and detect the theft of electrical equipment.The knowledge of GIS and its implementation will also assist thesecompanies in the location of appropriate geographical sites for thecreation of substations. Moreover, they will establish the optimalroute for power lines by the help of this system.

Contents

Abstract 2

List of Abbreviations 6

List of Terminologies 7

List of Figures 8

List of Tables 8

Introduction 9

Research Objective 11

Literature Review 11

GIS Overview 11

Applications of GIS 12

GIS in Land Management 12

GIS in Vegetation Management 13

GIS in Emergency Management 13

GIS in Environmental Management 14

The Working of GIS 14

GIS in Electric Distribution 17

The Common Information Model 19

GIS in Electric Transmission 19

GIS and Customer Service in Electric Utilities 22

GIS Engineering Analysis 24

Some of the Integration Solutions Already in Use 26

Research and Data Collected 27

Analysis of the Collected Data – A Comparison of a utility with and without GIS 41

The Public Electricity Corporation in Yemen 41

Before GIS 41

After GIS 49

Implementation of GIS and its Implications – Comparing the Efficiencies of the two 57

Implications of Having GIS in an Electric Utility 60

Conclusion. 61

References 64

List of Abbreviations

GIS– Geographic Information System

AEP– American Electric Power

NYPA– New York Power Authority

COPEL– Companhia Paranaense de Energia

CAD– Computer-aided Design

GPS– Global Positioning System

DMS– Distribution Management System

CIM– Common Information System

IEC– International Electrochemical Commission

CCAPI– Control Center Application Programming Interface

EPRI– Electric Power Research Institute

SDSFIE– Spatial Data Standard for Facilities Infrastructure andEnvironment

GTC– Georgia Transmission Corporation

PC– Personal Computer

GISEL- Geographic Information Systems Electricity of Lebanon

TAMIS- Transmission Asset Management Information System

BELCO- Bermuda Electric Light Company Limited

OMS– Outage Management System

CM– Collection Management

EnBW- Energie Baden-Wurttemberg AG

T&ampTEC- Trinidad &amp Tobago Electric Commission

PEC– Public Electricity Corporation

List of Terminologies

GeographicInformation System – a system that uses digitized mapping to getrelevant information that can be utilized in understanding geographicregions.

Electricutilities – companies that deal with the generation, transmissionand distribution of electricity.

Right-of-way– an appropriate path

Aerialphotography – taking of pictures from above

Poweroutages – blackouts and electric downtime

Feederconnectivity – Connection to an electric power supply

Encroachment– Taking over an environment

Hydroelectricpower – Power generated from the flow of water

Indexvariable – a changing pointer

Ethereal– airborne photography

Topography– geographical landscape

List of Figures

Figure 1 GIS 3D modelling that helped GTC gain permit of setting up a powerline through a part of a forest 21

Figure 2: BELCO incident survey 29

Figure 3: BELCO GIS and data for Bermuda 30

Figure 4: Yemen electricity consumption by year 41

Figure 5: Rate of response to power outages 43

Figure 6: Predicted response to power outages with GIS implementation 51

Figure 7: General usage of income before GIS 58

Figure 8: General usage of income after GIS 58

List of Tables

Table 1: Various GIS systems 17

Table 2: Attempted and successful electric equipment vandalisms 42

Table 3: Projected attempts and successful vandalisms with GIS implementation 49

Table 4: Customer satisfaction with and without GIS in the electric utility 55

Introduction

Thedeveloping interest in the use of technology has revolutionized manyindustries. The thesis was written to show the importance of havingtechnology in electric utilities in terms of changing thetraditionally used mapping systems. For many years, countries andtheir electrical companies have relied on paper maps to state thelocation of their electric utilities. The same maps indicate the typeof structures available or that were installed, and the dates of theinstallations. They guide engineers in understanding the distributionof the utilities, as well as the transmission of power to consumers.

However,these mapping systems do not provide real-time maintenance for theelectric utilities. They require a lot of work that begins withstudying maps, then travelling to sites and along transmission linesfor troubleshooting purposes. Consumers also have to call in forcases of disconnected or interrupted power supply, which can only beresolved after a series of troubleshooting tests to identify thecause of the trouble. Theft of the highly expensive electricalequipment such as transformers is also detected late and leads tolosses for the side of the company involved. The cons of having papermaps as the most dependable source of information on electricalutilities are many. They adversely affect the electrical companiesand their customers as they cut on the efficiency in utilization ofelectric power.

GISsystems came into existence to counter these negative effects ofpaper maps (Davis, 2001). They also reduce the amount of workrequired in the successful analysis and monitoring of geographicalregions. The GIS system helps in the understanding of geographicalregions through digitized analysis that is highly reliable. It givesaccurate data that can be used in the deployment, implementation andmaintenance of electric utilities (Bodenhamer, Corrigan, &ampHarris, 2010).

GISis currently being adopted by many electrical companies because ithas proven to be one of the best means of cutting on costs. It alsoallows for the proper utilization of available resources in terms ofequipment, facilities, and personnel (Maidment, 2002). The system hasreduced the need of stationing engineers in various parts along thetransmission lines as the whole grid can be monitored from a centralposition. An added advantage that comes with the adoption of thisamazing system in electric utilities is the increased revenues. Theseadded revenues are due to reduced cost of operations, as the systemtakes over most of the duties of monitoring the electrical network.As such, the research focuses on the advantages of having a GISsystem in electric utilities as opposed to using any other systems.

Oneof the developing countries that has developed from the use of papermaps to the utilization of the GIS is Yemen in Africa. The country,under the Yemen Power Company, has implemented the GIS systemthroughout its electrical network, from generation to transmissionand distribution. The result is well monitored lines whose breakageis immediately noted. Customer care in terms of repairs and sortingout outages is also done at faster rates than in their previoussystem, and this has seen the company’s revenues and operationsimprove with time.

Research Objective

Theobjective of this research is to review the use of GIS systems inelectric utilities and to prove the efficiency and advantages ofthese systems. Proof will be provided through a thorough comparisonand analysis of electric utilities with and without GIS systems aspart of their operations. The research works on the hypothesis thatelectric utilities under a GIS system are more efficient than thoseworking under any other systems.

Literature ReviewGIS Overview

TheGeographic Information System, abbreviated as GIS, is a mappingcomputer system. It enables one to model and analyze data within asingle geographical database. The modern technological developmentshave seen a rise in the use of GIS as an essential tool in solvingproblems. It is used by governments, individuals, institutions andorganizations in their daily activities (Meehan, 2013). GIS givesgeographical references that enable the users identify and locatefeatures on the surface of planet earth. Analysis of these features,as well as their trends and patterns, can give information that iscrucial in various networks such as electrical, sewerage,transportation and political networks (Maguire, Smith, &ampKouyoumjian, 2008).

Theworld is dynamic and complex in terms of its formation, alignment andarrangement of geographical features. The development of man-madestructures demands an understanding in geographical information. Thespatial information can assist in comprehension of the complexintertwining of human beings and existing natural resources invarious avenues of interaction. The relational information is crucialto the development of countries and economies (Meehan, 2013). Assuch, GIS can be described as any information system working ongeographic information through editing, analysis, integration andstorage. The technology is achieved through the use of GISapplications that are easily available tools developed to enablespatial information analysis. They also incorporate interactivequeries and manipulate maps to generate relevant information (Nag &ampSengputa, 2007).

Applications of GIS

Thereare numerous applications of the Geographic Information Systems. Tounderstand these applications, it is important to understand theelectric utility management, as well as the link that GIS providesbetween the many information systems present in huge companies. Theseapplications vary with electric utilities. They are implemented asmanagement tools that improve electric utilities by providingfinancial, engineering, construction planning and engineeringsolutions. These applications are in the fields of land management,vegetation management, emergency management and environmentalmanagement.

GIS in Land Management

Theuse of paper maps in surveys, setting of land boundaries anddetermining the extent of real estate expansion is no longerefficient. The use of GIS in managing of real estate property hasbeen a successful venture in which American Electric Power (AEP) hasindulged in. The company has moved all its records to digital formatsand the amount of work required in filed surveys before the sale ofland has been reduced. The storage of boundary information in aneasily available and reliable digital format makes it easy and cheapto monitor and manage real state property. Through GIS, the companyhas managed to distribute their land and property information to realestate agents and legal personnel through their internal network.

GIS in Vegetation Management

Themanagement of vegetation comes into play when mapping out theright-of-way for power lines. The importance of this management, andthe effect of vegetation on electric utilities, is evident in theAugust 2003 blackout that took place in America. The major blackoutwas caused by the contact of trees with transmission lines. Itprompted the New York Power Authority to implement a GIS system thatcan prevent a repeat of the same. The system is in charge of theprotection of 1,400 miles of circuits consisting of high voltagetransmission lines. The system incorporates both environmental andelectric features to manage the right-of-way for over 16,000 acres.The system uses GPS technologies and aerial photography to provideeffective mapping that is updated in real time. It is contrary to thetraditional maps that could not keep up with the ever-changingvegetation. The GIS system has also been used in the management oftreatment using herbicides, and has saved the New York PowerAuthority a lot of money that would have otherwise been spent intraditional treatment methods.

GIS in Emergency Management

GISsystems have been utilized in disaster management and support as wasseen in when Hurricane Isabel struck in September 2003. Dominion’sGIS was built to monitor and manage power outages, as well as keeptabs on feeder connectivity. It was also meant to manage thecompany’s assets. When the disaster struck, more than half ofVirginia and North Carolina electric customers lost their powersupply. The GIS system was used in restoring power to its customersand supporting the response to this disaster. Within a fortnight, theGIS technology as implemented by Dominion had been used 650,000 timesin the recovery from the disaster by providing relevant information.

GIS in Environmental Management

GIScan be implemented to support the development of environments andprotect them from human encroachment, as well as natural destruction.The Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL) is a large electricutility in Brazil. It uses GIS to plan how it interacts with itssurroundings. To comply with Brazil’s law of protecting theenvironment from pollution and erosion, and promoting agrarianfertility, COPEL uses GIS to keep its activities in check. The GISensures that this company positively interacts with the environment.It also helps them plan for the development of hydroelectric plantsby considering their effects on the environment, health andgeographical region at large. The GIS put in place monitors dams anddirects the company on proper relocation strategies and dammanagement.

The Working of GIS

Agood and reliable GIS system relates information that is completelyout of phase by the use of a key index variable. The variable islocation. Locations can be expressed as factors of space and time andrecorded as results of dates, times, and x, y, and z coordinates asper the longitude, latitude, and elevation of the location.

Thecurrent GIS technologies make use of digital information. Severaldigitized methods of creation of data are utilized. A hard copy mapof a region is converted to digital form and stored in a digitalmedium by the use of software such as CAD, and this is a highlyutilized procedure of data creation. Ortho-rectified imagery ishighly available and works with images from aircraft, satellites, andUAV`s to make heads-up digitizing the main avenue for extraction ofgeographic data. This form of digitizing involves the use of aerialimagery to trace geographic data directly instead of the traditionalmethod of using a digitizing tablet to trace the geographic form. Thetraditional method is known as the heads-down digitizing (Pennwell,1990).

Therefore,it is evident that GIS uses the key index variable of space-timelocation for all other information. Hence, GIS can relate informationthat would have been deemed unrelated, just as a numbers or textrelational database can relate several different tables. GIS doesthis by the use of common key index variables. The key in question isspace-time extent or the location.

Spatialinformation creates an incredible relationship in various real-worldoccurrences. It can also be utilized in past and future projectionsfor data analysis, interpretation and representation. The fact thatGIS can be used for these purposes has opened new avenues of inquiryinto patterns of the real world, as well as its behaviors that werepreviously uncorrelated.

GISprecision relies on source information, and how it is encoded to beinformation referenced. Land surveyors have possessed the capacity togive an abnormal state of positional exactness using theGPS-determined positions. High-determination advanced territory andairborne symbolism, effective PCs and Web innovation are changing thequality, utility, and desires of GIS. These changes are meant toserve communities on a stupendous scale, yet by and by there areother sources of information that have an effect on the general GISexactness like paper maps. However, these may be of constrained usein accomplishing the coveted precision since the maturing of mapsinfluences their dimensional steadiness.

Inbuilding up an advanced GIS database on topographies, geographicalmaps are the primary source. Ethereal photography and satellitesymbolism are additional hotspots for gathering information andrecognizing traits which can be mapped in layers more than an areacopy of scale. The size of a guide and topographical rendering rangerepresentation sort are imperative angles. Keeping in mind the endgoal to digitize a guide, the guide must be checked insidehypothetical measurements, then filtered into a raster configuration.Coming about raster information must be given a hypotheticalmeasurement by an elastic distorting innovation process.

Aquantitative investigation of maps brings precision issues into coreinterest (Decker, 2000). The electronic and other hardware used tomake estimations for GIS is significantly more exact than themachines of customary guide examination. All land information arecharacteristically wrong, and these mistakes will be solved throughGIS techniques were previously unachievable.

Theadvancement of open source GIS programming has a long programminghistory—a long custom with the presence of a first framework in1978. Various frameworks are accessible which cover all areas ofgeospatial information taking care of.

Someopen-source desktop GIS projects include:

GIS

Comments

GRASS GIS

A complete GIS initially developed by US Army Corps of Engineers

ILWIS

GIS that integrates vector, image and thematic info.

gvSIG

Java-written GIS. Run on various Operating Systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X)

JUMP GIS

Another product of Java

MapWindow GIS

An application software used in programming and runs on desktops

QGIS

Runs on various Operating Systems, just like gvSIG

SAGA GIS

A hybrid system with a wide variety of geoscientific methods

uDig

A java GIS with API and source code

FalconView

Product of Georgia Tech Research Institute. A mapping system.

Kalypso

Java and GML3 system mainly used in water management simulations

Capaware

C++ 3D GIS platform that allows for graphical analysis.

TerraView

Vector and raster data handler in geo-relational databases

Whitebox GAT

GIS software that can run across many platforms and Operating Systems.

Table1: Various GIS systems

GIS in Electric Distribution

Anelectric distribution company uses a system of physical offices togive the resource of electricity to clients associated with thoseoffices all through a land range (Nag, 2008). Every part of thedistribution framework has a physical area and related information.So does every client. So as to arrange, develop, keep up, work anddeal with the electric distribution system, it is important to make,oversee and use this geospatial information (Korte, 2001). A GIS is ahelpful and effective approach to gather, compose, keep up and dealwith this geospatial information and showcase it on a geographicguide.

Acomplete, point by point electric circuit network model is vital forarranging and working the electric system. The capacity toeffortlessly keep up the integration model is a foundation of MilsoftGeographic Information arrangements. Milsoft Geographic Informationarrangements incorporate task administration apparatuses to empowerevery client to make his or her own forms of the model depending onhow they want to carry out their occupations.

MilsoftGIS is being utilized by practically 200 electric distributionutilities. An essential thought in their picking it was thesimplicity of making and keeping up a completely electric systemnetwork that is coordinated flawlessly. It is done with the aid ofMilsoft Engineering Analysis and Milsoft Outage Management System(Meehan, 2013).

MilsoftGeographic Information arrangements are indispensable segments ofMilsoft E&ampO, a thorough arrangement of utilizations andinformation administration for designing and operations of anelectric conveyance framework.

Thereis very high competition in the distribution of electricity throughthe exchange of system information. Distribution models require largedata models that can have up to 10 million objects. Their uniqueinformation models require a lot of accounting and tracking in termsof electricity distribution. Distribution systems have a distributionmanagement system (DMS) that works with the interaction of severalsystems. These systems include an outage management system, ageographic information system, customer information systems, andsystems to track maintenance of the transmission lines. Moreover, thedelivery of the electricity to customers needs to be monitored.

Thedistribution systems are more complex than the transmission ones.Many changes occur in distribution systems, and maintenance has tokeep track of these changes. Therefore, a flexible DMS needs to beimplemented so as to cope with these changes. It increases thecomplexity of distribution systems and subsystems. These systemsrequire appropriate software packages, and can be problematic when itcomes to sharing information across departments. As such a standardsystem needs to be implemented so as to streamline the sharing ofinformation throughout the distribution management system. One ofsuch reliable models is the Common Information Model (CIM) that hasbeen standardized by the International Electrochemical Commission(IEC).

The Common Information Model

Themodel was developed for the Control Center Application ProgramInterface (CCAPI). The development was done by the Electric PowerResearch Institute (EPRI). It allows for the exchange of informationbetween computer systems and, therefore, integrates the businesssector and control center operations. The model is applied indistribution systems and can be extended to give information on theflow of the load along power lines.

Otherdata models include the ESRI that works with computer-aided design(CAD) and GIS to manage infrastructure and maintain electricdistribution. The Spatial Data Standard for Facilities,Infrastructure, and the Environment (SDSFIE) is also another modelthat utilizes either CAD or GIS features. It was developed by the USDepartment of Defense.

GIS in Electric Transmission

Powercompanies have another instrument for drawing closer the difficultiesof transmission line siting. Open web guide administrations, forexample, Google Earth and Yahoo! Maps have made essential mappinguseful and basic information layers accessible to basically everyonewho associates with the Web. On the other hand, GIS innovationupgrades the systems power suppliers’ utilization to considervariables in their line siting procedures. It is a method for gettingto and sharing related geographic information (Meehan, 2007).

Serverinnovation and lightweight online GIS administrations permit clientsto get a wide mixed bag of information sources and to analyze a widerange of information connections connected with transmission linesiting assignments. Also, GIS keeps on profiting these tasks bygiving a structure to demonstrating, line siting, areaadministration, and all periods of transmission line administration.

Currentonline GIS abilities set the stage for another point of view, achange of mentality, about bringing web guide administrations intothe professional workplace. GIS server innovation permits engineersto effortlessly outline official dashboards for administration thatpermit uncomplicated information access. Information customers canpicture exceptional foundation information, load administration,force request, blackout data, area leases, and schematics (Harder,1999). These features help them rapidly recognize system efficienciesand open doors for transmission line development.

OpenAdministration Organization of New Mexico has unlimited informationassets that it draws on for its transmission siting ventures. Theseincorporate high-determination airborne photography, advanced risemodels, satellite information, hillshades and georeferenced outputs.Joining these picture layers, designers can evaluate area forms andmodel different passageway situations. The Public Service of NewMexico worked with Force Engineers Inc. to create and execute anonline programming application based on ESRI`s ArcGIS stage thatbacks high-voltage transmission line implementation. The onlineapplication can either be associated with the system in the workplaceor detached in the field. It incorporates ongoing guiding andfollowing, online examination of structure data, an issue areaapparatus, and coordination of a few layers of base data. It also hasan assessment and support module, and a reporting capability. Theapplication additionally can show current ecological and right-of-wayinformation that is essential in routing power lines.

Thegenerally utilized EPRI-GTC Siting Technique composed by the ElectricForce Examination Foundation is being utilized by GeorgiaTransmission Corporation (GTC). The electric company is utilizing anaugmentation to ArcGIS composed by Photograph Science calledPassageway Examiner 9. The product underpins every progression of thesiting approach`s thorough techniques for reporting and reliablyapplying arranging presumptions, assessment criteria and choices. GISeffectively coordinates with the technique for breaking down thecomponents of suitability surfaces for common, building and man-madeconditions. It is utilized to guide every single geographic componentinside of a region of interest and offers representation ofpassageway choices.

Figure1 GIS 3D modelling that helped GTC gain permit of setting up apowerline through a part of a forest

Thechoice procedure utilizes ArcGIS to distinguish full scale routes,characterize the undertaking range limits, recognize the optionpassages inside of the large scale paths, and select a favoredcourse. The product maps every geographic component in a study zoneand appoints numerical suitability qualities to all components.Components, for example, open area, agribusiness and wetlands arepositioned from 1 (most suitable) to 9 (minimum suitable). Utilizingthe cell values, a PC calculation computes ideal ways for three sortsof suitability surfaces: situating with existing transmission lines,situating with existing street privileges of way, and intersectionless created ranges. The ideal ways distinguished are called fullscale passages. The model makes reports that incorporate maps,connected criteria portrayals and expense suggestions. Positions andweights are computed for every option, and the siting group positionsevery option course.

GIS and Customer Service in Electric Utilities

Clientconsideration is a noteworthy business transformer inside of electricservice organizations. The way to exceptional client consideration isincorporated data. Since such a large amount of what is important toclients identifies with an area, incorporated spatial data isdiscriminating. Quite a bit of a utility`s data innovation spendingplan is committed to client frameworks. The client records speak to anoteworthy resource of a service organization. Utility clientframeworks contain data like installment and utilization history,rate class, area, criticality of supply, and metering sort, amongother key data. What client frameworks don`t give is a spatialconnection to the information. Compelling connection with clients isvital to the utility`s prosperity. Unquestionably keeping the lightson is vital to consumer loyalty.

Itmay appear like a basic thing: taking meter readings, analyzing thereadings through a billing system, compute the appropriate charges,sending the bills to clients, gather the cash. In any case, clientshave diverse rate calendars, move around, and now and again defaulton their payments. Every one of these components convolute thecharging procedure. At whatever point that the bill estimationhappens, a lot of questioning takes place. Electric utilities handlethe greater part of bills without an issue, the little minority ofcharging issues can make a huge workload for call focus and chargingworkers. So whatever a utility can work on to diminish the quantityof charging issues would pay off liberally. GIS can offer thisassistance. GIS can better deal with the meter perusing procedureitself. Charging frameworks have a tendency to be greatly precise, sogiven the right meter reading, bills are quite often correct. Be thatas it may, any issue with charging precision is quite often becauseof an evaluated meter reading. Evaluated peruses are made because ofthe failure of meter perusers to get to the meter amid the plannedcourse. Unique meter peruses happen when clients move or whenutilities supplant a meter or discover the meter to be flawed. It`sthese extraordinary circumstances that make the most work and producethe lion`s share of charging request and issues. Utilities use GIS tooversee meter perusing courses. GIS can be utilized to alterablycorrect courses for new circumstances, for example, when somebodybuilds another house amidst a current neighborhood, or to investigatewhere charging issues most usually happen. GIS can figure out whereto deliberately place computerized frameworks in issue regions. GIScan help highlight designs for meter perusers. Clients` requestsregularly trigger different procedures.

Illustrationsincorporate requesting another administration, requesting a privateproperty streetlight, asking for a meter test, looking for a lightingdiscount, or requesting a vitality review. While we frequently thinkabout utility as being in charge of putting up transformers, newpipes and lines, and transformers, utilities need to oversee numerousother client related assignments. Since these exercises include aclient or a client`s specialists, making exact arrangements can beoverwhelming. GIS helps in easing the work by being on the lookoutfor any electric issues. The main source of customer consideration inoperations is the utility call focus point. Here, customerspecialists get charging solicitations, security questions, electricdetriment calls, meter breakdown and high bill grievances, shutoffand turn-on requesting, streetlight power outage reports, and evengrumblings about boisterous line trucks working in the extent. Tomany customers, the call focus is the most dependable type ofcorrespondence in the middle of them and the electric organization.

GIS Engineering Analysis

Electricitygeneration, transmission and distribution is a big business inwhichever country it is in, and electric utilities are confrontedwith constantly expanding rivalry (Nag &amp Sengupta, 2007). Thecompetition is tough in regions that do not have a governmentalmonopoly in this sector. In areas with more than one electricutility, the competition is tough. These utilities are obliged tocreate more power, at higher unwavering quality, with less cost ofstaff (Thomas &amp McDonald, 2015). Generally, GIS is a frameworkthat empowers more prominent corporate productivity through thepowerful sharing and appropriation of data. Advanced informationsystems in utilities, as well as great corporate data frameworks,create the difference between a successful and failed utility intoday`s electric business. Besides, those organizations that havesound data frameworks can influence existing information to bolsterdesigning examination (and in addition other particularapplications). Using existing corporate data is the intelligentdecision to dodge repetition and synchronization issues. Thus,electric utilities that implement GIS have a higher throughput whencomplemented by engineering analysis tools within their corporateinformation systems network.

Theengineering analysis of an electric utility should be given utmostimportance. This can be achieved through the design of high-qualityengineering applications, with particularly reliable datasets.Engineering analysis requires that data be derived from the GIS andmanipulated for utilization in the business model. This data shouldnot be left to lie within GIS only. The manipulation involvedincludes data conversion, network tracing, validation, softwareexecution and additional engineering parameters as indicated byTrussell and Kenney.

Thereis a mixture of approaches to incorporate GIS and designinginvestigation. Data extraction is the most fundamental strategy andwill be used in this investigation. Extraction alludes to drawingdata from the GIS, using engineering analysis to supplement it withthe information needed, and sending out it to its particulardatabase. This methodology furnishes the designer with aggregatecontrol of the data, yet exhibits upkeep issues in light of the factthat any progressions made by the designer aren`t consolidated overinto the venture information framework. It is critical to perceive.However, it is past the extent of this work, that an assortment ofreconciliation situations exist to mechanize this procedure on anundertaking level. Some of these reconciliations are bundled in theintegration solutions outlined below.

Some of the Integration Solutions Already in Use

GISreporting capabilities can be made reliable and valid through theintegration of this geographic system to engineering analysis.Various integration solutions exist for the various needs andrequirements of electric utilities. From a GIS vantage point, thereexist monetarily accessible, customized integrations forincorporating the design and implementation of engineering analysisthrough ESRI accomplices. A good example of an integration solutionis the Miner &amp Miner ArcFM®, an effective augmentation tofundamental GIS. ArcFM is a reliable extension that is utilized as acorporate solution for the management of an electric utility (Meyers,2001). The fact that it can be used to interface systems makes itoutstanding for its efficiency and reliability. It enables theinterfacing of GIS and electric network infrastructure withthird-party engineering solutions and analysis engines. Its networkadapter permits a building model to be removed from the current GISinformation and stacked by means of XML into the tool used foranalysis of this data. Likewise, it considers the stream of data oncemore into the GIS, the other way. Generally, this apparatus gives aninterface between the GIS and the software used in engineeringanalysis. The model layouts are organized to work with ESRI`sElectrical Distribution information model and interface with normalanalysis systems, for example, CYME`s CYMDIST®, Advantica Stoner`sElectric Solver®, and Milsoft`s Windmil®. Analyzing theseintegration solutions on the basis of power systems, software vendorssuch as Siemens Corporation design solutions that can act asinterfaces between engineering analysis tools and GIS. The powersystem analysis as done by PSS/E® is integrated into GIS throughsome engines designed by Siemens Corporation. PSS/Engines® containthe calculations important to perform distinctive analysis withindistribution networks of electric power.

Manyintegration solutions exist today, and more are being designed andcreated as the electric utility industry grows and expands. Thisresearch will utilize the ArcFM as it is readily available andcomprehensively implemented.

Research and Data Collected

Thedistribution and transmission of electricity by electric utilitieswill be studied through the use of ArcFM. The understanding of theimportance of GIS will be derived from the advantages that come withsuch a reliable system. This system will be compared to other systemsused for monitoring, mapping and network analysis within electricutilities and the efficiencies compared.

Reliabledata has been obtained on various electric utilities implementing GISin their transmission and distribution work. This data gives a clearindication of the necessity that is GIS and its related softwareapplications in the improvement of electric distribution (O’Looney,2000).

Acase in point is Bermuda’s BELCO. This electric utility is the onlygenerator, transmitter, and distributor of electricity in Bermuda.This company aims at meeting the electric necessities of theindividuals and organizations of Bermuda, with a customer base of32,000 clients (Teicholz, 2001). It hopes to achieve this in asecure, economic and reliable manner. BELCO is a long-term client ofEsri ArcGIS solution and as of late actualized the ArcFM Arrangement.These arrangements were decided for a few key reasons. To begin with,BELCO needed to decrease the measure of repetitive informationsection by putting away however much information in a solitarydatabase archive as could be expected. Secondly, the utility neededto have a distinct depiction of its facilities and its auxiliarynetwork. There was also a need to properly store and update itsclient and infrastructure information that dwelled in a systemdesigned to manage power outages, known as the OMS (Meehan, 2007).

Acrucial aspect of GIS usage by BELCO is the ultimate restoration ofelectric power. This restoration is done after a hurricane. Bermudaconsists of islands that experience hurricanes for some time aroundthe last half of the year. Typhoons can develop into hurricanes thatcan lead to devastating effects on the Bermuda Islands. Geologistshave discovered millennium-old hurricane traces in Bermuda.Century-old records of hurricanes also exist and are proof of thedangers posed by these natural phenomena.

Ahurricane that revolutionized the technology used in electricutilities in Bermuda was the Hurricane Fabian of 2003. This hurricanewas characterized by winds that reached average speeds of over 100miles/hr. The climate station in Bermuda recorded of over 160miles/hr before the wind gage was destroyed by the same hurricane.The hurricane, which hit the island for more than 8 hours,interrupted power supply to 25,000 clients. The outage wasaccompanied by the destruction of mainline circuits. The three weeksthat followed the hurricane saw BELCO strive to totally restorecustomer connections. From this experience, staff members understoodthe advantages of GIS in the restoration of electric power. They alsoappreciated automatic information systems, as well as the OMS(Christopherson, 2012).

Immediatelyafter, BELCO contracted with ESRI’s Business Partner, OneGIS, Inc,to plan and create a GIS-based harm evaluation device, which ispresently known as the IST (Incident Survey Tool). This tool can berelied upon for information support, altering, and reliable error andinformation reporting that affects business errands that happen amidand after a storm or other common catastrophe, in addition toordinary regular events. It is intended to permit the end clients togather and keep up data on destroyed electric poles. This data isthen stacked into a solitary database environment from which teamscan be dispatched and doled out to repair the poles. The instrumentwill likewise guarantee that all work is followed to the end. Also,reports can be created on damages to a specific circuit orinfrastructure. For example, brought down or inclining posts can beidentified and located. This is utilized to help the administrationchoose how best to distribute the relevant work force and to organizethe work once first phase of restoration has been concluded(Johansson, et. al., 2012).

Figure2: BELCO incident survey

Hurricanesare bound to reoccur in the future, and meteorologists haveforewarned the nation of Bermuda of worse ones yet to come. As such,BELCO is executing an extension of ArcFM known as Viewer Redline thatis a proprietary product of Miner and Miner. This extension allowsthe designated teams to put down reliable GIS information as they aregathering data on affected electric poles (Sioshansi, 2009).

Figure3: BELCO GIS and data for Bermuda

BELCOplans to in the end make a free Site where it will have the capacityto furnish the general society with data about blackouts and theirplans and efforts in the restoration of electric power connections(Kwan, et.al, 2014).

Anothercase study on the implementation of GIS is the Lebanese electricutility known as Electricite Du Liban (EDL). This organizationproduces, transmits, and appropriates power to millions of clientsall through the nation (Meaden &amp Thang-Do-Chi, 1996). With thebacking of Khatib &amp Alami (K&ampA), the Esri merchant inLebanon, it has effectively executed its GIS framework in light ofEsri innovation to model and deal with its electrical frameworkfoundation in metropolitan Beirut—the GISEL project.

TheGISEL project was launched in 1993 and has helped with vanquishingsome difficulties that EDL has confronted in its electric operations.The fundamental test is decreasing system and network losses(specialized and nontechnical) created by clamorous systemadvancements and unlawful electric power tapping (Sreenivasan, 2011).The achievement of this is though the tracking of energy flow fromsubstations to customers. Any flaws, breakages and illegal tappingcan be identified from this tracking and addressed immediately(Peters, 2006).

Tolessen the rampant cases of nontechnical errors to satisfactoryguidelines, the EDL and K&ampA groups built up a collectionmanagement system running in GIS. Through this application, they getEnergy Correlation (EC) studies depending on introduced meterreadings at distinctive levels of the system. The CM application wasinitially running on ArcView’s version 3.2 and was as of late movedto Desktop version 9.1 of ArcGIS (Ormsby, 2004). The studies of ECcomprise of two levels: the essential feeders versus disseminationtransformers and the appropriation transformers versus end clients.

Thedistribution transformers that ought to be assessed are highlightedthrough the EC investigation between essential feeders anddissemination transformers. The charged kilowatt-hour (kWh) use isanalyzed against the genuine use by the EC studies between theappropriation transformers and the end clients (Meehan, 2013). Thisstudy identifies the nontechnical errors on the low-voltage system.In the wake of pinpointing the system regions with risingnontechnical errors, infringement correction groups are dispatched,equipped with maps and verifiable kWh utilization reports that can bederived from the application designed for collection management. Theyincapacitate illegitimate system associations and make proper movesagainst violators. Besides, the EDL and K&ampA groups watchtransformers with high errors by remonitoring EC, searching fordetermined illicit connections on the network.

Decreasingspecialized errors depends on the operation the Facility Sitingapplication that is in-built within GIS. In light of EDL powerappropriation guidelines and a database on the clients, the facilitysiting application—created utilizing MapObjects 2.1 (as of latemoved to ArcGIS 9.1)—helps EDL`s home association office insettling on choices about associating new structures to the electricdissemination lattice or in fortifying a current association.

Onaccount of another electric connection, in the wake of finding theappropriate site, the client is requested by the application to enterthe obliged new load, the utilization factor, its type, and a cushionseparation for the application to look for a source of power. Theapplication works on the submitted information and runs a heap streammodule to identify areas in which there is a drop in voltages on thecurrent system. Toward the end, the application shows the realcondition of the influenced electric system and its gadgets, forexample, transformer attributes and the influenced links`determinations. It displays situations of the expected electric statesubsequent to executing the client interest for the client to browse,and it will demonstrate resistance sometimes. At last, the clientchooses the perfect decision and draws a representation of theanticipated course of the cabling network (Sivanagaraju &ampSatyanarayana, 2009).

Theapplication furnishes the system organizer with a report thatincorporates a mapped out site as well as the systems involved,alongside all ascertained electric components, for example, voltagedrop and the link limit (amps). It also includes the type of cablesused and their number, as well as the transformer’s diversityfactor, comparing the load demand on the network before and after thehookup.

TheFS application comprises of extra key elements, for example, showingsolutions for issues identified with the low-voltage system arranging(e.g., ideal line design), to diminish voltage drops (Bayliss &ampHardy, 2012). Thus, this application offers suggestions to rerouteelectrical cables to structures starting with one system then ontothe next, supplant a few systems with higher cross segments to suitthe obliged load, or reduce the voltage drop by changing the kind ofconnecting lines used (Singh, 2010).

Tosupplement and influence its GIS venture, EDL is getting ready toactualize a staged Autonomous Meter Reading task with fullreconciliation with the GIS. This reliable integration will give widecontrol over the appropriation system exercises and accomplish themonitoring of losses along the transmission lines over the internet.

Theimportance of EDL’s GIS program is seen in the utility datainnovation and assumes a crucial role in everyday business. Byincorporating GIS into different frameworks, for example, the clientrelationship administration framework and the blackout hotlineframework, EDL has the capacity to influence GIS datasets to backoperational exercises and improve efficiency in administrationdependability and level of client administration.

Researchon the implementation of GIS was also conducted in regards toPhilippines and the country’s National Transmission Corporation(TRANSCO) (Sicat, 2002). From this research, it is evident that thisorganization is in charge of electrical transmission in this country.The TRANSCO GIS undertaking is controlled by Esri`s group of GISapplications in ArcGIS 9. The products incorporated are ArcView,ArcInfo, ArcGIS Server, ArcGIS Spatial Expert, ArcGIS 3DInvestigator, ArcGIS Information Interoperability, ArcGIS Schematics,ArcPad, ArcSDE, and ArcPad Application Developer (InternationalBusiness Publications, 2007).

TRANSCOlikewise actualizes the TAMIS application that uses a DBMS fromOracle 10g. With TAMIS, TRANSCO staff can show, question, and dissectcomputerized maps for the best course to a facility, right-of-way andobstructions along a transmission course, geography, and elevatedsymbolism, among others (Toba, 2003).

TheF.F. Cruz &amp Co. and GSTI created and conveyed a few arrangementsof computerized TRANSCO maps (Garson, 1999). One set containsdifferent elevated photographs and satellite pictures. Another setincorporates TRANSCO`s different resources, for example, workplaces,distribution centers, substations, transmission lines, correspondencetransfer stations, control focuses, towers, correspondence offices,and fiber-optic links. A few topical maps of different scales, forexample, authoritative limits, open base, street systems, stream andwater bodies, vegetation spread, area utilization, landcharacterization, soils and topography, secured territories andindigenous people groups locales, risk zones, and some demographicinformation, are likewise given.

Also,Geodata Frameworks Advancements, Inc., Esri`s merchant in thePhilippines, has executed a project in GIS known as TARELCO I,situated in the Luzon’s Tarlac District. TARELCO I gives electricadministrations to 13 districts in Tarlac region, two regions ofNueva Ecija area, a few barangays of Guimba district in Nueva Ecijaterritory, and five barangays of Tarlac City.

TheGIS software provided by GSTI includes ArcView 9 and ArcPad PCequipment advanced maps covering the administration territory ofTARELCO I GIS preparing for TARELCO faculty specializedadministrations and undertaking administration and supervision.

UtilizingGIS innovation to mechanize TARELCO`s equipment gives theirfield-laborers and different workers with spatial information accessfor taking care of a wide range of issues, from equipmentsubstitution to administration solicitations to propertyadministration. This sort of spatial information access changed howTARELCO serve their clients, keep up ideal administrationdependability and wellbeing, and work in a more economical way.

GISinnovation empowers TARELCO to assemble a far reaching mechanizeddatabase of electric equipment, power lines, electric poles andconsumers of electric power. With the framework, TARELCO can stayinformed concerning the area and state of all their equipment,facilities and structures. It additionally meets the prerequisitescommanded by the National Transmission Corporation and the NationalElectrification Administration (Dibiase, 2006).

WithGIS innovation, this organization can undoubtedly utilize its areabase data and facilities in overseeing blackouts, and in addition thesupport of their appropriation framework, for example, line watchassessments and client administration demands. They will have thecapacity to achieve great strides in electric distribution to theadvantage their customers (Pick, 2008).

Essentially,the GIS innovation significantly helps TARELCO in the successful andeffective administration of the electric circulation framework forthe advantage and welfare of their large customer base of more than104,000 clients in both the Tarlac region and the Nueva Ecijaterritories. Besides enhancing their services, they expect a checkedchange in their primary concern because of better financialadministration an increment in effectiveness and precision andbetter backing in their choice making, planning, and themechanization of the processes involved in their work (Maguire,Smith, &amp Kouyoumjian, 2008).

Researchwas also conducted on Energie Baden-Wurttemberg AG (EnBW), which isone of Germany`s biggest suppliers of energy. It is actualizing acoordinated all inclusive system for its geospatial information thatis open to more than 1,700 clients. The endeavor arrangement istaking into account ArcGIS and related programming items. Theframework is utilized for specialized region association, specializedplant administration, and system control. SAP reconciliation tobolster business procedures is a fundamental piece of all venturestages.

EWRAG utility company utilizes ArcGIS and reciprocal programming forsystem information investigation, permitting the organization toproductively assess its advantage and system information and utilizethis data for corporate choice making. The organization iscoordinating the GIS with the current SCADA framework. Later on someaccess to the reporting capacities of the GIS will be granted to theconstruction companies and local authorizes for use in development ofprojects.

SWMMagdeburg (the general population utility of Magdeburg) characterizeddifferent GIS ventures, the most imperative being combination withSAP, association with systems that calculate the network features,incorporated planning, mobile GIS, management of records andredlining. SWM Magdeburg plans to coordinate SAP and AED-SICAD`sArcFM UT as the primary mainstay of its corporate IT. Through thismix, the utility guarantees that the information is updated andsteady in both frameworks, yet both can be connected all the whilethrough the crossing over of SAP and GIS. All further system relatedrealistic applications in the utility are either supplanted by theGIS or associated with it subsequently, all spatial information liesinitially in the GIS. With the new utilities application fromAED-SICAD, SWM Magdeburg has a corporate and very incorporated answerfor every single spatial procedure.

InGermany, AED-SICAD is the main supplier of GIS applications inEurope. It offers tailor-made and standard solutions and applicationsfor different businesses. ArcFM UT is its answer for the electricutility industry. It joins the qualities of Esri innovation, ArcFMand ArcGIS. The framework is utilized for system documentation,blackout administration, client data, maintenance, planning andincorporation with SCADA.

Völklingen,a public utility in Germany, concentrates district heating needs,power, water and gas, hence giving a complete electricity and watersupply to the individuals and organizations from one single source.The organization works a thorough system base to cover theimmeasurable supply area along the French outskirt. A TechnicalPlanning Department exists that utilizes ArcFM UT View Designersegment for the purpose of planning its projects. Utilizing ArcFM UTWeb and the GIS gateway taking into account ArcIMS, up to 20 extrastaff individuals from the general population utility can utilizegeographic data in their day by day work.

Lookingat The Trinidad &amp Tobago Electric Commission (T&ampTEC), it isclear that it gives energy to the twin island republic of Trinidadand Tobago. Since its initiation in 1946, T&ampTEC has been centeredaround the operation and support of the nation`s electrical system.T&ampTEC creates and disseminates power to 388,815 household,industrial, business, and road lighting clients in 5 provincialdivisions. With the objective of enhancing unwavering quality andclient administration, T&ampTEC as of late recognized the need toactualize an Enterprise GIS to further bolster a more powerful andproficient electrical system. As a component of T&ampTEC`sinvestigation, expected advantages of an Enterprise GIS were:

• BetterClient Care – Consumer Investigators, Meter Readers, and CrisisTeams will have the capacity to find clients and thusly enhanceresponsiveness to clients` administration needs.

• EnhancedPlant Support – The status and state of outside plant and gear willbe proficiently evaluated, classified and organized for upkeep inlight of area and criticality.

• EnhancedOffices Administration – A strong stock of Transmission andAppropriation resources the area of these advantages in connectionto nature and the execution of these benefits will give the vitaldata expected to settle on choice in respect to support orsubstitution of the plant.

• EngineeringAnalysis – The analysis of distribution networks, for example,insurance coordination, load flows and load adjusting would beconceivable, bringing about enhanced unwavering quality and nature ofthe supply for all clients.

Tomeet these needs, T&ampTEC swung to 3-GIS to go about as its GISspecialists. With a long history of actualizing GIS at utilities,and also its industry driving suite of ArcGIS Server based items,3-GIS was very much situated to lead T&ampTEC in this exertion.3-GIS held broad prerequisites workshops with T&ampTEC`s GIS groupand added to a GIS information model for its Transmission, Conveyanceand Correspondence divisions. To gather dispersion information forthe geodatabase, T&ampTEC used the mobile software supported by3-GIS. 3-GIS mobile conveys the accompanying abilities to utilitieslooking for a portable GIS arrangement:

• Easyto utilize devices thus eliminating the need for extensive training

• Broaddesign capacities minimize customization costs

• Capacityto reference any Esri geodatabase diminishes the need for conversion

• Afootprint that is light facilitates an IT division`s job by reducingtheir burden.

Workingwith T&ampTEC`s GIS colleagues, 3-GIS designed 3-GIS mobile,capturing structures, conductors, meters and gear as a components ofthe field inventory. The measure of data gathered made them settle onproduction with a team of 50 people and less effort. When the networkinventory is completed, specialists will utilize 3-GIS Mobile as astaking device to arrange new developments. T&ampTEC will likewiseutilize 3-GIS Mobile to perform examinations on posts, transformers,lines, substations, and transmission structures. In the end, T&ampTECfield teams will use 3-GIS Mobile to perform harm evaluations andvegetation administration exercises. Notwithstanding 3-GIS Mobile,3-GIS Web, an online GIS investigation and altering device, iscurrently being conveyed by T&ampTEC. T&ampTEC is utilizing 3-GISWeb as a basic apparatus for diverse offices, including ClientAdministration, Dispatch and Engineering to get to T&ampTEC`sinformation. With more staff having entry to the GIS and having thecapacity to report on, query and monitor the network, T&ampTEC`s GISobjectives ought to be feasible. With the sending of their GISthrough both 3-GIS Web and 3-GIS Mobile, T&ampTEC is coordinatingtheir GIS with its other venture arrangements, including AMI, OMS andResource Administration frameworks. By sending a genuine Endeavor GISwith 3-GIS`s help, the Trinidad &amp Tobago Power Commission haseffectively accomplished their dependability and administrationobjectives and is much closer to coming to their objectives for aproficient brilliant framework. They are certain the full arrangementof 3-GIS Mobile and 3-GIS Web will help T&ampTEC satisfy theguarantees they made to their clients (Segal-Horn et.al, 2008).

Analysis of the Collected Data – A Comparison of a utility withand without GIS

Thedata was collected in terms of a study of various electric utilitiesthat have implemented GIS in their operations. To analyze this dataand create an understanding of GIS in electrical utilities, thisthesis compares the operations of a utility with and without GISimplementation (Geomap Society, 1990). From this analysis, it isexpected that differences in performance and efficiency will beobserved at all points of operation.

The Public Electricity Corporation in YemenBefore GIS

Inthe early years of this utility company, and in its present timewhereby the implementation of advanced mapping systems in terms ofGIS is yet to be realized, the Public Electricity Corporation hasmany issues with its operations (Foster &amp Briceno-Garmendia,2010). These issues range from generation to transmission anddistribution of electricity. The issues involved are affecting theproductivity of the company and it is becoming difficult to sustainthe growing population of Yemen in terms of power supply. Industriesare also coming up and there is an urgency to expand the electricnetwork so as to support economic growth and development in themodern world of globalization.

Figure 4: Yemen electricityconsumption by year

Thegraph has been derived from the United States Energy InformationAdministration

Thenormal operations now involve the hydroelectric and geothermalgeneration of electricity and its distribution through transmissionlines without any form of precise monitoring. The first issue thatcan be noted is the increased level of vandalism that characterizesthis period. This vandalism involves the theft of transformers,broken power lines and even posts that have fallen after torrentialrain. This vandalism is bringing about losses to the company and thecountry at large. The losses are in terms of millions and wereprohibiting the company from growing economically and geographically.As a result of the vandalism, outages are common since transformersand power lines connecting the customers are either missing or havebeen destroyed or stolen. With these losses, the company mostlyconcentrates on replacing the stolen items instead of buying new ones(Hausman, et.al, 2008).

The table below shows the increasing trend of the vandalism ofelectric equipment along the transmission and distribution lines, aswell as substations:

Year

Number of Attempts

Successful Attempts

2006-2007

814

800

2007-2008

925

925

2008-2009

1027

1000

2009-2010

1090

1051

2010-2011

950

931

2011-2012

1400

1211

2012-2013

1310

1307

2013-2014

1700

1649

Table 2: Attempted andsuccessful electric equipment vandalisms

Fromthe table above, most of the attempted vandalisms were successful andwere realized after the damage had already been done, or aftercustomers called in to report the cases. As such, it is evident thatcontrolling these vandals is quite difficult and there is an urgentneed of constant monitoring to ensure that attempts are detected intime and thwarted before damage is done.

Thepopulation is growing and the number of people requiring properelectric supply is increasing. Industries utilizing high voltages andcurrents are also on the rise and the demand for electricity isbeyond what is generated. As such, frequent power rationings arecommon, with some regions failing to get any supply at all during theday for the sake of high demand areas. The principle harm broughtabout by an electric blackout is self-evident. In the event that abusiness’ electric supply comes up short at a remote site, and thebusiness lacks a reinforcement power supply, the site will go dark(Sivanagaraju &amp Satyanarayana, 2009). This means system downtime,lost income, and irate clients who will move their business toanother supplier.

Figure 5: Rate of responseto power outages

Thechart above shows the percentage of outages relative to the responsetime they usually get. Most of the blackouts, especially those in therural regions, are responded to even after a month has elapsed. Theones responded to within a day are those in critical areas such asmilitary bases and hospitals, which cover only 5% of the totalblackouts in the country. The reasons for such extensive delays arethe lack of proper equipment to notify the utility of the blackouts,as well as difficulty of accessing such regions.

Yet,these blackouts likewise cause long-term harm that isn`t soself-evident. A complete lack of power at a remote site can destroyelectric apparatus – and the business – even after the supply isrestored. Gear for monitoring remote sites likewise needs a reliablesupply of electric power and backup. It is important for businessesnot to lose sight of their local business sites (Taylor, 1927).

Onthe off chance that a remote site is off amid a power blackout, thebusiness misses these fundamental cautions: Status of reinforcementpower supply and environmental alerts for overheating, fire, andwater harm. Site security, entryway, door, and interruption cautions(Singh, 2010).

Whatall these shrouded harms signify is superfluous expenses. The impactsof a power blackout are not just on electric apparatus, or onactivities – but on the bottom line of the business. The budgetaryimpact of a power blackout falls into four classifications: lostincome, repair of destroyed equipment, replacement of equipment thatcannot be repaired and manpower expenses of restoring connections.Unless the Public Electricity Corporation has a satisfactoryreinforcement arrangement, power blackouts mean expanded expenses andlost income. Customers have added expenses of having to purchaseprotective equipment for their equipment (United Nations, 1997).

Theoperations of the PEC, due to the lack of implementation of thereliable GIS, involve the physical mapping of the correct routes(Yates, 2007). A lot of surveying has to be done so as to establishthe right of way across a piece of land. It is a costly andtime-wasting process which involves a lot of legal procedures andformalities. Some routes, such as those across forests, are alsodifficult to map because personnel have to be sent to such hardshipareas and mark out the best possible routes for the power lines. Assuch, a lot of effort is also utilized. The result of this kind ofmapping is delayed connections to customers. These delays are due tothe amount of time it takes to establish a path as an appropriateroute to get to the customers and to have the transmission linesproperly and safely mounted on posts (Vagliasindi, 2012). Remoteareas are particularly difficult to deal with because they have mapsand areas that have not been properly exploited, and are thereforeunknown to many people.

WithoutGIS, this utility company has very poor customer service. The clientshave to make visits to the power offices just for queries andinformation. Therefore, service is highly limited to regions aroundthe company’s offices. Making phone calls to the company forsupport is quite hectic because there are many clients calling in,thus it is difficult for both the company and the clients. In termsof billing, many errors are made and some people pay overstated orunderstated bills (Einhorn &amp Siddiqi, 1996). The meters used arenot automated meter readers and have to be monitored by personnel whohave to go door to door to take the readings. Once the readings aretaken, the person who reads them has to go back to the offices andcalculations for the amount of money to charge each client are done.The bills are sent through mail, and there is no way for clients toknow beforehand how much they are to pay. Overpayments are sometimesnot transferred to the succeeding bill. At the end of it all, thiscompany only has clients because it is a monopoly but not becausethey serve people well (Halff, Sovacool &amp Rozhon, 2014). Theprocess of paying the bills is the most loathed one because peoplehave to form long queues at the end of the month so as to physicallypay to a cashier before disconnections are made due to delayedpayments.

Interms of monitoring client usage, the performance of the utilitycompany is below standards. An outage can last more than three daysbefore someone addresses it. The reason for the delay is the lack ofproper maps that would guide the relevant personnel to theproblematic transformer or substation. They have to rely on papermaps, which can be inaccurate or misguiding at times. Thus, thecustomer service provided by this company is poor and needs urgentrevision and remaking so as to avoid having customers lose theirfaith in the company. Appropriate communication channels have to beestablished for this to be achievable.

Currentoperations also involve a lot of illegal connections. These illicitconnections involve having people tap the main power lines andtransformers so as to benefit from the power supply without having topay a cent for the connection or the use of power. Such connectionsare not done by experienced personnel or people who have theexpertise like that of utility workers. It mostly happens amonglow-income earners who wish to get electric connections but have nomeans to pay for them. Therefore, the Public Electricity Corporationdoes not benefit from such connections (Essential Services, 2003).Instead, they are sources of losses in terms of money and lives.These connections are poorly done and dangerous to those people whomake them. To begin with, people make these connections while thepower lines are still live. Since this is an illegal activity, theycannot contact the utility offices to switch off the power as they goon with their activities (Alexander, 1993). Therefore, they have torisk working with the live connections. Many people get electrocutedand some die as they try to make these illegal connections. Othersstart horrific fires after triggering short circuits from theconnections they make. These fires are particularly dangerous if theytake place in slums whose houses are close together and made ofcombustible materials such as wood, paper and thatches. The firesoften raze down numerous houses, leading to more losses. Theseconnections also overload the transformers from which the connectionsare made, and even lead to blackouts when the load is more than canbe handled. Due to the lack of a proper monitoring system, and anetwork analysis and fault identification system, it is difficult forthe utility to note the illegal tapping. As such, most of them gounnoticed and unaddressed.

Networkmonitoring is also traditional and ineffective, as well asinefficient. The techniques used to identify faults in power lines,as well as their location and the time they take place are quiteunreliable. The methods used are mostly dependent on observation,which requires personnel to always be on the move as they inspect themajor connections, such as those of high-voltage cables. Moreover,this monitoring is not in real time, as a fault could be detecteddays after it has occurred. The company depends on reports ofblackouts or observed transformer explosions, as well as fallingpoles. Such sources are not dependable when managing a utility thatis serving millions, with more clients coming in each year. The formof network-monitoring takes up a lot of resources in terms of time,personnel and money. It is also hectic when it comes to monitoringpower lines going through remote and inaccessible regions.Transformer attributes are not properly monitored in Yemen andrecords on them are unreliable (UN Industrial DevelopmentOrganization, 2014).

Theperformance of the Public Electricity Corporation involves a lot ofphysical work and labor. Productivity is low and losses are high. Themeans that their efficiency in terms of generation, transmission anddistribution of electricity to the clients is low. A lot of power andmoney are lost along the lines of transmission. It also takes a verylong time (approximately four months) from the period of applying fora connection to the time it is done. Such a system lacks in thevarious crucial aspects of network monitoring, troubleshooting andresponding to crisis. The results of such a poor setting in terms ofan electric utility is traditional and requires change so as to gainmaximum profits.

After GIS

Ifthis GIS framework is set up in Yemen, the Public ElectricityCorporation can have a better understanding of the geographicdynamics, for instance, why a few districts are profoundly describedby power outages and why repairs are always done on a certainsubstation or transformer. The company can likewise distinguish whycertain electric posts are being replaced on such a regular basis.This may call attention to high rates of burglary and vandalism ofthe electric assets in the zone hence a need to set up efforts toestablish beefed up security or alert residents to be on the lookout.The GIS contains a geodatabase that upgrades progressively and thatcan indicate every facility and hardware along the line oftransmission (United States, 1976). In this manner, utilizing thedata produced from the geodatabase, the administrator can recognizegear that is being looted or vandalized. As being what is indicated,they can likewise find the closest police headquarters from the samedatabase and contact it by means of telephone asking for them toreact earnestly to the vandalized hardware (Utility Data Institute,1999). Public Electricity Corporation would rely upon this newarrangements that will upgrade security of power transformers anddiscourage vandals from effectively getting to them. GIS willdemonstrated its effectiveness by telling clients of progressingburglaries. A few individuals will be captured while in the act ofstealing lubricating oil from transformers and instances of vandalismwill incredibly lessen in the nation. With such a utilityadministration framework, crisis reaction groups will have thecapacity to act speedier and productively. The execution of theframework will give data to the watch groups and police around theregion on the most proficient method to locate the best route toreach the transformer being vandalized. In that capacity, The PublicElectricity Corporation will give power by effectively transmittingand dispersing it in a satisfactory and solid way. GIS databases willbe utilized by various support offices, including inspections, fireservices, police records, emergency management departments, andrescue mission operators to react to vandalized electrical cables,transformers and substations.

The table below shows projected reductions in vandalism upon theimplementation of a GIS system:

Year after Implementation

No. of Attempts

Successful Attempts

Year 1

1500

400

Year 2

1200

327

Year 3

750

110

Year 4

310

43

Year 5

100

17

Table 3: Projected attemptsand successful vandalisms with GIS implementation

Thetable above shows the reduced number of vandalism cases with GISimplementation. In the first year, attempts will still be more ascitizens will not have experienced the effectiveness of the system.However, many of these attempts will be thwarted before anyconsiderable damage is done. The cases will reduce and it is expectedthat by the 5thyear of implementation, vandals will be afraid of getting caught, andthe attempts will reduce drastically.

Uponthe future GIS integration, the Public Electricity Corporation willcounter power blackouts with ease. This framework will be executedsuch that it will have a database of facilities that are critical,including hospital facilities and police headquarters that can beaffected by these blackouts. The utility will use an ArcViewextension appropriated to different areas the nation over in order toperform this basic assignment. The absence of internet connectionsthat are reliable will probably lock out the prospects of an onlineapplication (Uniamikogbo, 1995). Critically placed facilities havepower backups, and thus it will be necessary to use ArcView so as tocover these regions and prevent outages. Through GIS, PEC will manageto locate random power outages and identify their causes throughtroubleshooting mechanisms. This system will be used to createreports on important facilities within a region and map them relativeto police and fire stations.&nbspIt can also draw maps of areasexperiencing frequent outages such that they can easily be monitoredand traced for improvements on the same. Feeders can be located andteams sent to them for repairs and restoration. Reports of blackoutswill also be generated and monitored so as to identify trends andcome up with solutions to them, unlike in the present operations.

Figure 6: Predictedresponse to power outages with GIS implementation

Thechart above shows the predicted improved response to blackouts uponthe implementation of a GIS system, following an analysis of theefficiency of the same. Very few cases will take over a month torespond to, while most of the power outages will be solved within aweek.

Routingof power lines will tremendously improve in the country after the PECtakes up GIS and integrates it in power transmission anddistribution. Expansion of new high/low voltage lines in view of theaccessible cadastral information and choice of practical routes willbe accomplished effortlessly. In addition, the organization willfigure out how to approximate expenses connected with such expansionsconsidering the obliged number of transformers, length of conductorsand number of posts. Assuch, the utility company will no longer go blindly into expansionprojects, most of which are currently stalling due to lack of propermonetary allocations. Inthe process of planning for new lines, private properties like landand any developmentsin them may be affected. GIS will enable the utility to determine theexact places where the lines should pass and the costs ofcompensation. Owners of such properties will be easily reached forconsentand compensation.

Moreover,the utility will become more efficient in determining the right ofway. In the framework the straight line separation can likewise beutilized to focus the electrical cable separation in meters orkilometers between a transformer and a plot in which a post is to beput. The function for the shortest path decides the way from adestination point to a source. Cradles will typically be used todepict secured zones around elements or to show regions of impact.Buffers will now and then be used to clasp information to a givenstudy region. They will also exclude features inside of a criticaldistance of something from further thought in an examination. Abuffer will be utilized as a part of the framework to come up withthe quantity of plots that can be served by a specific transformer ata given region.

PECwill have ArcGIS Network Analysts who can find the best way to getfrom one location to another or the best way to visit severallocations, thus coming up with the best routes. As such, little timeand effort will be required to come up with the final route for powerlines, and it will not require people to visit these areas in theinitial mapping as it uses spatial data. Thus, surveyors will beeliminated when it comes to determining the right of way, saving onsalary costs of the utility.

Networkmaintenance will be done efficiently by the PEC utility. Bygetting constant data on conductor sizes,transformer loads, feeder loads and future power demands through theGIS system, they can plan for the appropriate days of carrying outmaintenance checks. Overloaded or nearly overloaded transformers willbe up-rate on a schedule. The GIS will also supports curativemaintenance, which is done after a faulthas occurred and is reported by a customer or detected bycontrollers. The transformer number to which the customer supplyreference number is attached is used to locate the area. Usingthe system, the attributes of the transformer will be accessed. Itslocation will also be identified and emergency teamsdispatched appropriately (Kidokoro, 2008).

PECwill improve its billing service through the use of GIS. GIS canbetter deal with the meter reading procedure itself (Pabla, 2004).Charging frameworks have a tendency to be to a great degree exact.Hence, when given the right readings of meters, bills will quiteoften be accurate. Meter reading routes will be managed by the use ofGIS. GIS will be utilized to progressively correct courses for newcircumstances, for example, when somebody puts up another houseamidst a current neighborhood, or to investigate where chargingissues most normally happen. On the off chance that access istroublesome, GIS can figure out where to deliberately place robotizedframeworks in such territories. GIS will help highlight patterns thatrelate to the meter readings. Thus, customers will get their metersread in time, and charged as well.

ThroughGIS, PEC will respond to customers` orders in a short time, improvingtheir reliability and efficiency (Almeida, Gula, &amp Norgard,1998). Examples include ordering a new service, ordering a privateproperty streetlight, requesting a meter test, seeking a lightingrebate, or ordering an energy survey. Since these activities involvea customer or a customer`s agent, making accurate appointments,optimizing travel between appointments, and scheduling tasks will bemade easy by the use of GIS. GIS will aid in visualizing the workseeing patterns in the work helping route technicians, salespeople,and inspectors and enabling crews to understand the current statusof equipment in the field (Faruqui, 1989). Hence both the employeesand the customers will be satisfied in the work done by GIS inensuring customer queries are responded to promptly.

PECwill improve on their customer care utility call center with theintegration of GIS. Customer representatives will receive billinginquiries, conservation questions, electric trouble calls, metermalfunction and high bill complaints. Moreover, they will get shutoffand turn-on requests, streetlight outage reports, and even complaintsabout loud line trucks working in the area. As such, customers willfind it easy to get services of the PEC utility (Almeida &ampRosenfeld, 1988). The negligence of employees due to monopoly will beeliminated since calls will be logged in the GIS system and analyzedin terms of responses and actions taken according to the issueshighlighted.

Thisutility will introduce GIS to help the call center better correspondwith clients. They will populate the GIS database with data aboutpower inconveniences, availability of personnel, and crisis areas.They will identify where specialists are working and altering brokenmeters. Anticipating this data on vast screens all through the callcenter will avail to every client administration agent preparedaccess to what`s going on within a given region. At the point when aclient calls about transformers that are sparking, the call centerpersonnel will rapidly see the known areas of such cases and theareas of fitting field teams working in the territory. This personwill convey this data rapidly and precisely to the client. Clientswill absolutely get their meters settled, their streetlights turnedon, and their energy restored. They will likewise need to realizewhat the present status of their issue is. This level ofcorrespondence, which will be made conceivable by GIS, will go far intruly watching over the client.

Thetable below shows the current and predicted level of customersatisfaction comparing the situations before and after theimplementation of GIS. This table was created following a randomsurvey of 500 users of Yemen’s electricity supply after theadvantages of GIS were explained to them:

Level of satisfaction

Number of respondents (Current situation)

Number of respondents (Predicted situation with future GIS implementation)

Very dissatisfied

150

15

Dissatisfied

110

25

Slightly satisfied

140

50

Satisfied

70

318

Very satisfied

30

102

Table 4: Customersatisfaction with and without GIS in the electric utility

GISwill help the PEC decrease the measure of disregarded obligations itacquires in terms of bad debts. Currently, individuals are defaultingin paying the full installation sum or clearing the electric bills(Meehan, 2007). The organization loses millions regarding forfeitedobligations. The GIS, if utilized by PEC will track perpetualdelinquents. GIS will help agents involved in collection to properlyuse their time by selecting the right neighborhoods to visit or tocall. Some terrible obligations must be explained by closing down theelectric power supply. So if the utility resolves to do shutoffs, GISwill help with the logistics to figure out which administrations toclose off and give ideal steering to the specialists to take after.By utilizing demographic data together with client default data thatwould legitimately fragment the clients, the people involved incollections will manage to set up viable procedures to gather fromnonpayers before those receivables wind up in awful obligation. Onthe off chance that the utility knows, for instance, that there is agroup of nonpayers in a range with a vast elderly populace, it wouldsend delicate updates with, maybe, offers to do vitality reviews tohelp diminish the effect of those clients` electric bills.

GISintegrations by the PEC will help curb illegal connections from powerlines. The company will monitor its network and identify powerconnections that are not authorized (Pabla, 2004). Through thissystem, every kilowatt that is consumed by customers will beaccounted for, and each that fails to be pointed to a particularsubscriber will be seen as tapped. These connections will also bepinpointed on a map created by the GIS such that personnel will bedirected to the exact location of the tapping. The disconnectionswill be made and the perpetrators arrested after the GIS directs therelevant authorities to the exact location of the tapping. Theregions that are notorious with such connections will also be mappedout such that they can constantly be monitored for any illegalconnections.

Implementation of GIS and its Implications – Comparing theEfficiencies of the two

Comparingthe two situations in which the company involved is the solegenerator, transmitter and distributor of electric power in acountry, a lot of differences can be shown. In the first scenariothat represents the years when the country operated an electricutility without using the GIS system, a lot of losses are realized.These losses are in terms of electric power and money. Mostimportantly, the company does not realize its potential in terms ofsupplying power to a huge population. Moreover, it does not gain themaximum possible profits. Most of its money is lost in repairs ofdestroyed or stolen assets, and in traditional ways of doing things.A lot of its activities are manual and require a lot of hired labor.Moreover, the clients find it difficult to communicate with theutility (Almeida &amp Rosenfeld, 1988). There is a hugecommunication gap between the two parts of the market, namely thesupply and the demand. The country has a very high potential ofproducing electricity in terms of hydroelectric power but lacks inthe proper means to distribute and transmit the same. Even after thedistribution, it is difficult to follow up on customer issues. Thesecond scenario is characterized by improvements in terms oftransmission, distribution, network monitoring and costeffectiveness. From this situation which is the period after theimplementation of GIS in the country’s electric utility, a lot oflosses are mitigated. Most of the power generated is distributedeffectively. The transmission lines are laid out in effective routesthat are cost effective as compared to routes that would have beentaken randomly as it was done in the past. Moreover, customer issuesare solved in an instant. Communication channels have beendiversified and are supported by the GIS system. Calls to the callcenter are monitored and logged by the system for effective help deskimplementation. Furthermore, the teams in charge of customer supportcan follow up on the locations from which issues were raised andtrace the possible cause of the problem. Getting the correct route tothe center of the problem saves the utility company a lot of money interms of fuel and time spent looking for the exact problem (Faruqui,1989).

Beloware charts showing two major uses of income in the utility before andafter GIS.

Figure 7: General usage ofincome before GIS

Figure 8: General usage ofincome after GIS

Figures7 and 8 above show the differences in the use of the utility’sincome after salaries and taxes are paid. Before the GISimplementation, most of the income that is left goes back to repairsand restoring vandalized equipment. In figure 8, the biggest portionof the income is channeled to other money-making ventures becauseonly a small portion is used in repairs and restorations. Damageshave been mitigated greatly and the company can grow economicallythrough investments. Thus, GIS has economic benefits.

Onthis comparison, it is evident that the modern utility is moreefficient than the traditional one. The efficiency is derived bycomparing the number of connected clients and the amount of powerdistributed to the clients. It also checks on the amount of cashgained by the utility in terms of profits and relating it to thelevel to which customers are sufficiently supplied with power. Fromthese two situations and time periods, one can conclude that thecurrent system is more efficient than the previous one. More profitsare made by the company, and the rate at which new customers areconnected is also higher. Moreover, the customer satisfaction is alsostudied in terms of the rate and speed at which their issues aresolved effectively. The company satisfies more customers than itcould support in the past and delivers power accordingly. There iseven room for improvement in terms of its customer numbers and willgrow with GIS improvements being incorporated.

Implications of Having GIS in an Electric Utility

Theadvantages of using GIS are many and imply a lot for the utilitycompany involved, the customers, and the government. Through the useof such an efficient system, investors tend to come in and signagreements with the utility company. Moreover, foreign companies haveset up their plants within the country because they are assured ofconstant and reliable power supply from the electric utility. Fromthe PEC perspective, investors have come in and funded the productionof electricity. Companies have also collaborated with the mainsupplier of electricity to assist in production, transmission, anddistribution. Thus, the smartness of the system, and its efficiencyhas attracted more money to the company. The government, afterobserving the use of GIS and the improvement in the utility company,is urging other utility companies to take up similar systems, andwork with them just like the electric utility has. As such, thewater, oil and gas companies are implementing smart mapping systemsand using spatial data to get the best out of their production anddistribution. The country is becoming dynamic in terms of the supplyof energy to customers and is diversifying in various fields ofenergy thanks to the successful GIS system implemented in theelectric utility. The country has also gained revenues from theelectric installations that have been done across the country, withfew losses on vandalized equipment. Following the implementation ofthe GIS system, there are fewer complaints from citizens in terms ofcompensation on the plots taken up by power line routes (Halff,et.al, 2014). Therefore, the country has been calm and satisfied interms of power supply and its routing. Most of the country’scitizens are not aware of the GIS system that has made electricity avery reliable source of energy in the country. However, they areaware of the fact that the use of electricity in the country hasbecome very convenient for all of them, and for the industries intheir countries too.

Conclusion.

Fromthis research, it is evident that GIS can be used in theimplementations of electric utilities. The areas within which thisGIS can be applied include:

  • Network monitoring, where the electric network can be checked for faults and breakages, as well as illegal connections. Through this monitoring, transmission and distribution can be kept in check. Having an eye on the network also ensures that the equipment along the power lines are secure and any reports of vandalism noted and reported, with action being taken almost immediately.

  • Customer service, whereby the customers can get reliable service from the electric utility, and in which the utility company can follow up on the services and connections it gives to its customers. Customer complaints can also be related and mapped out for the ease of coming up with long-term solutions.

  • Effective transmission and distribution of electric power to individuals and industries through the determination of the most efficient routes of transmission and getting the right of way. Getting the correct routes will also involve compensating people whose land has been taken up by high-voltage line connections.

  • Minimizing on the power outages experienced in the country and restoring power after unavoidable interruptions. Through the minimization of the blackouts, the utilities can increase the trust that people have in them and more customers can sign up for connections. Profits will also be on the increase and reduced repairs and restorations will also save on expenses.

  • Cost estimation in all the projects and connections done by the utility company. With such estimations, the utilities can properly plan and budget for their projects.

Theimplementation of a GIS system does not come without its hurdles.Firstly, changing the mindset of utility workers and making themrealize that they can operate with a smart system can prove to bequite a hectic task. Most utilities have relatively old employees whoare used to the manual way of working and travelling to problematicsites. With GIS, they believe that it is a threat to their careersand a way of replacing the old experienced team with the youngtech-savvy generation. This notion might create unhealthyrelationships and competition, as well as divides within the electricutility. Secondly, there is the issue of cost when it comes topurchasing a GIS system, its extensions and the equipment andsoftware involved in its implementation. This move to the use of aGIS system can prove to be quite costly, especially if the utilitydoes not have engineers that can design their own simple GIS system.

However,there are more pros than cons of implementing a GIS system in anelectric utility. The efficiency of an electric utility with GIS isoutstanding in terms of the number of people it can effectivelyserve. The reliability of such a system is worth more than the amountthat would be used to implement one, and is therefore a necessity fora country that requires constant supply of electric power. Developedcountries have implemented these systems and are reaping the benefitsof having a constant and reliable supply of power, as well as a meansof monitoring their network. Developing countries are also taking upthis technology and appreciating its effectiveness, which has adirect relationship to economic growth and development.

Theobjective of reviewingthe use of GIS systems in electric utilities proving the efficiencyand advantages of the same has been done sufficiently. Therefore,this thesis concludes that GIS can be used in the electric utilitiesin improving efficiency and reliability.

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